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Slaves
in the History of Islam


I propose to give here a short list of some of the
slaves who occupy the highest spiritual and temporal status in Islam and in the Muslim
society, from the very beginning of Islam.

The Holy Prophet of Islam
purchased him from his Jewess mistress and set him free. It was after the battle of Badr,
the first battle of Islam, and before the battle of Uhud.

Salman's faith, knowledge, piety and his unparalleled
spiritual achievements put him above all the companions of the Holy Prophet. He is one of
the four pillars of true Muslim faith (together with Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, Miqdad and
'Ammar). He has the unique distinction of being included in the Ahlul Bayt (the
family of the Prophet) by virtue of his faith and piety. The traditions showing his
superiority and virtues cannot be narrated in this short booklet. Nevertheless, I am
quoting some of them to give the readers a glimpse of his status in the eyes of the
Prophet and his successors.

Though he had already accepted Islam, Salman did not
participate in the battle of Badr because of his captivity at that time. After Badr, he
took active part in all the battles fought to defend Islam and the Muslims. When the
Qurayshites of Mecca together with many other tribes including the Jews of Medina,
besieged Medina, it was Salman who advised the Prophet to dig a moat around Medina in
order to prevent the enemy from attacking the weak points of the city. And it is for this
reason that this battle is called the "Battle of Moat (khandaq)".href="#r29" name="n29">

It was at this battle that a friendly argument began
between the emigrants of Mecca (the muhajirun) and the natives of Medina (the ansar).
The subject: Was Salman a muhajir or an ansar? The ansar claimed that
as Salman came to the Prophet in Medina, he belonged to the ansar group; the muhajirun
claimed that as Salman had left his home and family, he was a muhajir.

This friendly dispute also shows how great had become
the status of Salman within a short period of three years that every group wanted to claim
him as their own. Anyhow, the dispute was referred to the highest authority - the Prophet,
who decided that Salman was from neither of the two groups; he said' "Salman minna
Ahl al-Bayt -Salman is from us, the family [of the Prophet]."name="n30"> It was such a great honour which has
continuously been mentioned in traditions and poems. A poet says:-

The devotion of Salman was his pedigree,

while there was no relationship between Noah and his son.

The Holy Prophet had also said, "Salman is a sea
which cannot be exhausted and a treasure which never comes to end. Salman is from us, the
family [of the Prophet]; he has been given wisdom, and is bestowed with reason."href="#r31" name="n31"> Imam 'Ali said, "Salman
was like Luqman, the Sage."
Luqman is thought by many Muslim scholars to be a prophet. Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq said that
he was even better than Luqman.
Imam Muhammad al-Baqir said that Salman was from the mutawassimin (those who know
the inner character of the people).
Numerous traditions say that Salman knew al-ismul a'zam (the greatest name of
Allah); and that he was
from the muhaddathin (those to whom the angels talk).

To show the greatness of Salman, it is enough that the
Prophet said, "Faith has ten grades, and Salman is on the tenth (i.e., highest)
grade, Abu Dharr on the ninth, and Miqdad on the eighth grade." Whenever Gabriel came
to the Prophet, he used to request him to convey the greetings of Allah to Salman, and to
teach him the knowledge of the future.
Accordingly, Salman used to visit the Prophet at nights, where the Prophet and Amirul
mu'minin 'Ali taught him from the secret knowledge of Allah which was never taught to any
other person because nobody could bear it. It was because of this that Imam 'Ali said,
"Salman got the knowledge of the first and the knowledge of the last ones; he is a
sea which is never exhausted and he is from us - the family of the Prophet."href="#r38" name="n38">

'Allamah Majlisi writes in 'Aynu'l-Hayat that it
is understood from the traditions of Shi'ah and Sunnis both that after the ma'sumin nobody
among the companions of the Prophet was equal to Salman, Abu Dharr and Miqdad. Imam Musa
al-Kazim said, "On the day of resurrection someone will call on behalf of Allah that
'Where are the hawariyyin and faithfuls of Muhammad bin 'Abdullah, who stayed
firmly on the path shown by him and never broke his convent?' Then will arise Salman,
Miqdad and Abu Dharr."

The Holy Prophet said, "Allah has ordered me to
love four of my companions." People asked who those four companions were. The Holy
Prophet said, "'Ali bin Abi Talib, Salman, Miqdad and Abu Dharr."name="n40"> According to traditions, Allah sent for
Salman gifts and presents from Paradise; and the Paradise eagerly awaited his arrival.href="#r41" name="n41">

Once Mansur bin Buzurg, himself of Persian origin,
asked Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq as to why he remembered Salman al-Farsi so much. The Imam said,
"Do not say 'Salman al-Farsi (the Persian)'. Say, 'Salman of Muhammad.' You should
know that the reason of my often remembering him are three of his special virtues: First,
he discarded him own preferences in view of the preferences of Amirul mu'minin 'Ali.
Second, he loved poor and preferred them against rich and wealthy persons. Third, he loved
knowledge and knowledgeable persons. Verily Salman was a good servant of God, a pure
Muslim and he was not from the polytheists."

Once some companions of the Prophet were describing
their forefathers, showing pride in their family-trees. Salman was also among them. 'Umar,
who later become the second caliph, turned towards him and asked him to describe his
pedigree and family-tree. Salman said, "I am Salman, son of a servant of Allah. I was
poor, and Allah made me rich through Muhammad (upon whom be peace); I was a slave, and
Allah set me free through Muhammad (upon whom be peace). This is my pedigree and my
status, O 'Umar!"

It has been stated earlier that Abu Dharr himself was
one of the four pillars of faith and was on the ninth grade of faith (iman). But
even Abu Dharr could not understand Salman properly.

Once he went to the house of Salman. Salman had put a
cooking pot on fire. The two friends were talking when all of a sudden the pot tumbled
down and overturned. But, wonder of wonders, not a single drop fell out of the pot. Salman
put the pot on the fire again. After some time the same thing happened again. No drop was
spilt out, and Salman nonchalantly put it right again.

Abu Dharr was flabbergasted. At once he came out and
met Imam 'Ali in the way. He narrated to him what he had seen. 'Ali said, "O Abu
Dharr, if Salman informs you of all the things that he knows, you will wonder. O Abu
Dharr, Salman is a gate towards Allah on the earth. Anybody who accepts him is a believer,
anybody who rejects him is a kafir. Salman is from us - the family [of the
Prophet]."

I think these few authentic traditions are enough to
show the highest status of Salman in the eyes of Allah, in the eyes of the Prophet, Imam
'Ali and his successors.

Salman was appointed governor of Iran. He came to
Mada'in, the capital at that time. The people of Mada'in, long accustomed to the splendour
and glory of the imperial court of Iranian emperors, came out to welcome the governor
designate. They were waiting for a pompous caravan. But no caravan or entourage ever came.
Instead, an old man, carrying a few of his belongings on his shoulder was coming towards
them on foot. They asked the newcomer whether he had seen the entourage of their governor.
The newcomer said, "I am your governor." And that simple-hearted governor of
Mada'in ruled with such knowledge, compassion, justice and firmness that within a short
period whole Mada'in was in his hands. That conquest was made not by police or army, but
by the power of his spiritual perfection, piety and forbearance.

He died in 36 AH in Mada'in. Imam 'Ali came from Medina
to Mada'in in half a day by miracle just to perform the burial rites of his trusted
companion and brother. It
was a unique distinction of Salman. His grave in Mada'in (in Iraq) is visited by hundreds
of pilgrims every day. The pilgrimage (ziyarat) prescribed for that visit shows his
greatness in the eyes of Allah.

Zayd's father was searching for him. After a long time
he came to know that Zayd was in Mecca. He came to Mecca and offered to pay ransom so that
Zayd might be set free. The Prophet said that if Zayd wanted to be united with his family,
then there was no need of any ransom. He was free to go. But Zayd declined to go with his
father and preferred to remain with Muhammad. Harithah, Zayd's father, was extremely
grieved and said, "O son, do you prefer to remain a slave rather than a free man? And
do you prefer to leave your own father and mother for Muhammad?" Zayd said,
"What I have seen of the life of Muhammad is compelling me that I should not leave
him for any person". Such was the loving attitude of the Holy Prophet that it had
captured the hearts of all those who came to know him. And it was this unique
characteristic of his generosity which made almost the whole Arabia accept Islam within a
short period of twenty three years.

Anyhow, Harithah was shocked and announced in Ka'bah
that from then on neither he was father of Zayd nor Zayd was his son. It was then that
Prophet Muhammad announced in the hijr Isma'il (besides the Ka'bah) that "I declare
that from now on Zayd is my son." Harithah, hearing this, returned to his home but in
a less gloomy mood.

Zayd bin Harithah was now called Zayd bin Muhammad.
This continued till 5 AH when the following verse was revealed:


God had not made for any man two hearts in his (one) body; nor
has He made your wives whom you divorce by zihar your mothers; nor has He made your
adopted sons your sons. Such is (only) your (manner of) speech by your mouths. But God
tells you the truth, and He shows the (right) way. Call them by (the names of) their
fathers, that is better in the sight of God. (33:4-5)


Then Zayd was again called Zayd bin Harithah.href="#r48" name="n48">

The Prophet had married Zayd to his cousin Zaynab bin
Jahash, who was the daughter of his aunt, Umaymah. When the couple started quarrelling and Zayd divorced
Zaynab, the Prophet, on the command of Allah, married Zaynab himself. (She at that time
was more than fifty years old.
This fact alone is enough to clear away the thick cobweb of the malicious stories which
the Prophet's enemies have woven around this holy marriage.)

Allah says in the Qur'an:


Then, when Zayd had dissolved (his marriage), He joined her in
marriage to you in order that there may be no difficulty for the believers in the matter
of marriage with the wives of their adopted sons when the latter had dissolved (their
marriage) with the necessary (formality) with them, and God's command must be fulfilled.
(33:37)


By these two marriages of Zaynab bin Jahash, two pagan
taboos were abolished: By the first marriage, the idea of racial supremacy or the belief
that being a slave or freed slave was a stigma on the dignity of the person was destroyed.href="#r51" name="n51">

When a cousin of the Prophet could be married to a
freed slave who could frown in future on marriage of slaves with free women? (See the
Qur'an 2:221)

And by the second marriage, the belief that an adopted
son was a real son was destroyed. When the Prophet himself did marry the divorced wife of
his adopted son, then how could it be claimed that an adopted son was a real son? Thus the
custom of Arabia which recognised an adopted son as a real son was most effectively
abolished.

Zayd is the only person among the companions of the
Prophet to be mentioned by name in the Qur'an. He was the third person to accept Islam
after Khadijah bint Khuwaylid and 'Ali bin Abi Talib. Zayd was the commander of the Muslim
army sent to fight against the Christian forces at Muta. After the martyrdom of Zayd,
Ja'far, the cousin of the Prophet, took over the command and he also was martyred. The
Prophet was much grieved on these two deaths.

Zayd had a son, Usamah, from his first wife, Umm Ayman.
Usamah was 19 years old when he was appointed the commander of the army which consisted of
all the well known companions of the Prophet, including Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman. When
some of the companions frowned upon this appointments, the Prophet delivered a lecture in
which he said, "Zayd was better than you, and his son Usamah also is better than you
all." Usamah was ordered by the Prophet to go with the army to avenge the death of
his father at Muta.

iii. 'Ammar bin Yasir

'Ammar bin Yasir was one of the most respected
companions of the Prophet and the faithful follower of Imam 'Ali. He was from those who
were brutally tortured in the cause of Islam. He did two hijrahs - to Ethiopiahref="#r55" name="n55"> and Medina; he prayed towards
two qiblahs - Baytul Maqdis and Ka'bah. He participated in all the battles of Islam
right from the beginning,
and was martyred in the battle of Siffin on 9th Safar, 37 AH.

'Ammar and his parents were amongst the first converts
to Islam. His father Yasir was from the tribe of Qahtan in Yemen. He, together with his
two brothers, came to Mecca in search of a lost brother. His brothers returned to their
homeland; but Yasir stayed in Mecca where he entered into a covenant with Abu Hudhayfah
(from the tribe of Bani Makhzum), and married his slave-girl, Sumayyah bint Khayyat. Yasir
and Sumayyah begot two sons, 'Abdullah and 'Ammar, who according to the custom of Arabia,
were considered the slaves of Abu Hudhayfah.

After their conversion to Islam, Abu Jahl, with the
help of other pagans, started torturing the whole family mercilessly. Ironnails were put
upon their naked bodies and they were made to lie down on the burning sand of the desert.
The heat of the sun and the desert sand made the iron mails hot like fire; their skins got
burned. This torture used to continue till they became unconscious. Then the iron mails
were removed and water was poured on them.
The Prophet felt very sorry for the suffering family; but was unable to protect them.
Still he used to go near them and give them courage to forbear the tyrannies of their
tormentors. He gave them good tidings of Heaven and said, "Be patient, O family of
Yasir, because your promised place is Heaven".

Yasir and Sumayyah were brutally murdered by the pagans
of the Quraysh, under the leadership of Abu Jahl. It is a great distinction of this
distinguished family that all of them were martyred in the cause of Islam. Sumayyah was
very pious and God-fearing lady; and she was the first woman martyr of Islam.

When his parents were killed, 'Ammar pretended to
denounce Islam, and thus saved his life. Then he came to the Prophet bitterly weeping that
he had to utter the words of kufr so that he could slip away from the hands of the
infidels. The Prophet told him not to worry, as he had not uttered those words with his
heart. In this connection, the following verse was revealed:-


He who disbelieves in God after his belief in Him - except he who
is compelled (to do so] while his heart remains steadfast with the faith - and he who
opened (his) heart for disbelief on them shall be the wrath of Allah and they, shall have
a grievous chastisement. (The Qur'an 16:106).


When 'Ammar described the atrocities meted out to the
blessed Sumayyah, the Prophet said, "Patience, O Abu Yaqzan; O Allah, do not punish
anyone from the family of Yasir with hell-fire."

When the Prophet came to Medina, and the mosque of the
Prophet was being built, 'Ammar enthusiastically carried double load of the stones. At
that time he started reciting some lines of poetry, which reached to the ears of 'Uthman
(who later became the third caliph), who thought that 'Ammar was taunting him. Overcome by
this misunderstanding, 'Uthman hit 'Ammar on the forehead; blood came gushing out and
covered his face. He complained to the Prophet, who himself cleansed and dressed the wound
and said, "'Ammar is the skin between my eyes and nose." Then he said,
"Well, O 'Ammar, you will be killed by a rebellious group; you will be calling them
to Heaven, and they will be calling you to Hell.'

'Ammar's importance and honour can also be understood
from the following sayings of the Prophet: "'Ammar is with the truth, and the truth
is with 'Ammar wherever he may be. 'Ammar is the skin between my eyes and nose; and he
will be killed by a rebellious group.'
The Prophet also said, "Ammar is filled with faith (iman) from head to
feet". There are
numerous other traditions of the Prophet and the Imams concerning 'Ammar.

'Ammar was one of those faithful companions who always
followed Imam 'Ali. In 35th AH when 'Ammar, along with many others,
protested against 'Uthman bin 'Affan's (the third caliph) policy on the distribution of
the public treasury, the latter got him beaten so mercilessly that the lining of his
abdomen was burst and he got hernia.
As his father, Yasir had been an ally of Banu Makhzum, so they took 'Ammar (still
unconscious) to their home and said that if 'Ammar died they would avenge him with
'Uthman.

As mentioned above, the Prophet had said that he would
be killed by a rebellious group; and so it happened. 'Ammar was killed in the 37th year AH
by the army of Mu'awiyah bin Abi Sufyan. He was then 90 or 91 years old. On the day when
he was martyred, he was fighting valiantly against the army of Mu'awiyah, when one Syrian,
Abul Ghadiyah al-Muzani, fatally wounded him in the waist; his companions carried him to
safety. He asked for water; someone gave him a cup of milk. He said, "True was the
saying of the Prophet". People asked him to explain. He replied, "The Prophet
had informed me that my last sustenance from this world would be milk." Then he drank
some milk and after that he died.

Amirul mu'minin 'Ali was informed of this tragedy. He
came immediately and put 'Ammar's head on his lap and recited the following elegy for his
faithful companion:

O death, which is to come to me anyhow,

Better give me rest at once;

Because thou host finished off all my friends,

I see that thou doth recognise all my beloned ones,

as though someone is guiding thee to them specially.

Then reciting "verily we are of God and to God
will we return," he said, "Anybody who is not extremely grieved on the death
of 'Ammar has no share in Islam. May Allah have mercy on 'Ammar." Amirul mu'minin
himself said prayer on him, and buried him by his own hands.

'Ammar's martyrdom created a problem for Mu'awiyah
because many people in his army did remember the aforesaid saying of the Prophet, and they
realised that 'Ammar, by his death, had shown that Mu'awiyah and his army were rebellious
and not on the right path. To pacify the army, Mu'awiyah said that it was 'Ali who had
caused the death of 'Ammar by bringing him to the battlefield. When Amirul mu'minin 'Ali
was informed of this ruse of Mu'awiyah, he said, "Then it was the Prophet himself who
killed Hamzah by bringing him to the battlefield of Uhud!"

iv. Miytham al-Tammar

Miytham al-Tammar (the date-seller), son of Yahya, was
a slave purchased by Imam 'Ali. But very few people knew that he was a slave because 'Ali
emancipated him and he became one of the closest friends of his ex-master. He is counted
as one of his hawariyyun. It means "disciple" as in the twelve disciples
of Jesus.

Imam 'Ali had taught him the secret knowledge of Allah,
and gave him insight into future events. He knew the details of death, of sufferings of
future, which some times he described and people laughed at him; but the later events
always proved him right.

When 'Ali purchased him, he was called Salim. 'Ali told
him that he had heard from the Prophet that "your father in Persia called you
Miytham". Miytham was astonished to hear it as nobody in Arabia knew his original
name. Then 'Ali told him to keep his original name; thus he became Miytham again, and
adopted the agnomen, Abu Salim.

Miytham was a very pious man. It is written that,
"...he, may Allah have mercy upon him, was one of those who were very pious, and his
skin had dried upon his body [because of fasting and continuous prayers)."

Abu Khalid al-Tammar says that once on a Friday they
were sailing in a boat in Euphrates, when water became very stormy. Miytham looked up and
told them to put anchor and secure the boat as the storm was to become more violent. Then
he said that Mu'awiyah had died just then. The people noted down the date, which
afterwards proved correct.

Shaykh Kashshi narrates that one day Miytham al-Tammar
was passing by a group from the tribe of Asad, when Habib bin Muzahir came there. They
stood talking to each other. Habib said, "It is as though I am looking at an old man
(whose head is bald and who has a big stomach, and sells dates and water-melons) that he
has been captured and his enemies have crucified him because of his love for and devotion
to the family of the Prophet; then they have pierced his stomach." All the
characteristics were those of Miytham.

Miytham replied that, "I too am looking at a man
(whose face is reddish) who will come to help the son of the Prophet and will be martyred
and his head will be brought to Kufah." He meant Habib bin Muzahir.

Then they went their separate ways. The people who
heard this conversation said that they had not seen any one more liar than those two. Just
then Rushayd al-Hujri (who also was amongst the closest friends of Imam 'Ali and was given
the knowledge of future events) came there and asked whether they had seen Habib and
Miytham. The people repeated the conversation derisively. Rushayd said, "May Allah
have mercy upon Miytham! He forgot to tell that the man who would bring the head of that
red-faced man' would get hundred dirham more than the others in reward." When
Rushayd went away, the people said that he was bigger liar than those two.name="n70"> Shortly afterwards all the prophecies
were fulfilled exactly: Miytham was crucified, Habib was martyred in Karbala, and the man
who brought Habib's head to Kufah was given hundred dirhams more.

Amirul mu'minin 'Ali had told Miytham that, "You
will be captured after me and they will crucify you, and will pierce you with a spear; on
the third day blood will ooze out from your nose and mouth and your beard will become red
with your own blood. You should wait for that hair-dye. They will crucify you at the door
of 'Amr bin Hurayth with nine others; and your cross will be the shortest, but your honour
in the presence of Allah will be the highest. Come with me; I will show you the tree upon
which you are to be crucified." Then he showed Miytham that tree.name="n71">

Another tradition says that 'Ali bin Abi Talib asked
Miytham, "What will be your position when the bastard of Bani Umayyah [i.e.,
'Ubaydullah bin Ziyad] will compel you to curse me and to abuse me?" Miytham said,
"By Allah, I will never do so." 'Ali said, "By Allah, then they will kill
and crucify you." Miytham said that he would bear those tyrannies; and that such
sufferings were nothing in the way of Allah. Then 'Ali gave him the good tiding: "O
Miytham you will be with me in the hereafter in my grade."

After the martyrdom of 'Ali, Miytham used to go and
pray near the tree. He used to say, "May Allah bless thee, O tree; 1 have been
created for thee, and thou art growing for me." Whenever he met 'Amr bin Hurayth, he
would say to him, "When I come into your neighbourhood, you should remember my right
as a neighhour."

In 60 AH Miytham went for 'umrah (the minor
pilgrimage). In Medina, he visited the house of Umm Salamah, the Prophet's wife. When he
introduced himself, Umm Salamah said, "By Allah, many were the times when I heard the
Holy Prophet mentioning and recommending you to 'Ali bin Abi Talib in the heart of
night". Miytham learnt that Imam Husayn had gone outside Medina to one of his
gardens. Miytham was in hurry so he told Umm Salamah to convey his greetings to Imam
Husayn and tell him that very soon "we will meet in the presence of Allah".

Umm Salamah told her maid to rub perfume onto the beard
of Miytham. Rubbing perfume on the beard was a mark of high respect in Arabia. After that,
Miytham said, "O Mother of the Faithfuls, you have put perfume on my beard; but very
soon it will be dyed in my blood in the love for and devotion to you, the Ahlul
Bayt." Umm Salamah said that Imam Husayn remembered him very much. Miytham said,
"I too always remember him; but I am in a hurry, and there is a fate waiting for me
and him both; and we both will reach it."

On coming out he met 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas and told him
to ask whatever he wanted to know from the interpretation of the Qur'an, as "I have
read the Qur'an from Amirul mu'minin and I know both its revelation (tanzil) and
interpretation (ta'wil)." Ibn 'Abbas called for paper and ink-pot and started
writing Miytham's dictation. That a man like 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas did not frown from
writing his dictation shows the high respect of Miytham in the learned circle of the
Muslim community.

Then Miytham said, "What will be your feeling, O
Ibn 'Abbas, when you will see me martyred with nine others?" Hearing this Ibn 'Abbas
started tearing the paper, saying that Miytham had become a sorcerer. Miytham said,
"Do not tear that paper. If you see that what I have said does not happen, then you
will have plenty of time to tear that paper.

After the 'umrah, he returned to Kufah. During
his absence, 'Ubaydullah bin Ziyad was made governor of Kufah. One day he asked the mu'arrif
(a local informer) of Kufah about Miytham. On being informed that Miytham has gone to 'umrah,
he told the mu'arrif that if he failed to produce Miytham he would be killed in his
place. So the mu'arrif went to Qadisiyyah to wait for Miytham. On reaching
Qadisiyyah, Miytham was captured and brought before Ibn Ziyad. The people told Ibn Ziyad
that Miytham was the nearest of all to 'Ali bin Abi Talib. Ibn Ziyad was astonished:
"Was 'Ali trusting this 'ajami (a non-Arab) so much?" Then the following
conversation took place: Ibn Ziyad: "Where is your protector?"

Miytham: "He is waiting for the tyrants, and you
are one of them."

Ibn Ziyad: "Do you dare to speak like this before
me? Now there is only one way to save your life: you must curse Abu Turab."

Miytham: "I do not know who Abu Turab is."

Ibn Ziyad: "Abuse and curse 'Ali bin Abi
Talib."

Miytham: "What will you do if I refuse?"

Ibn Ziyad: "By Allah, I will kill you."

Miytham: "My master [i.e., 'Ali] had informed me
that you would kill and martyr me, together with nine others, at the door of 'Amr bin
Hurayth."

Ibn Ziyad: "I will not do so, thus proving your
master a liar."

Miytham: "My master did not say any lie. Whatever
he said, he had heard it from the holy Prophet, who had heard it from Jibra'il, who had
heard it from Allah. How, therefore, can you prove them wrong? Not only this, I even know
how you will kill me and where you will martyr me. And I know that I will be the first man
in Islam who will be reined in the mouth to prevent me from speaking and the first man
whose tongue will be cut out".

Ibn Ziyad imprisoned Miytham and Mukhtar bin Abu
'Ubaydah al-Thaqafi. Miytham informed Mukhtar that he would be freed from the prison and
that he would avenge the blood of Imam Husayn and would kill this man (i.e., Ibn Ziyad).
And it happened that when Mukhtar was taken out to be killed, a messenger came from Yazid
with an order to release Mukhtar.

Then Miytham was taken out and crucified on a tree at
the door of 'Amr bin Hurayth. Now 'Amr understood what Miytham meant by his request; and
so, he ordered his maid to burn incense at his cross and clean the earth beneath him.

Miytham turned the cross into pulpit. He started
narrating the traditions of the holy Prophet extolling the virtues and superiority of the
Ahlul Bayt, and also the traditions concerning the wickedness of Banu Umayyah and their
being cursed in the Qur'an and hadith; and how they would be destroyed at last. Ibn
Ziyad was informed of this unfailing courage and self-sacrificing spirit of Miytham. He
feared lest Miytham's lectures turn the masses against the Umayyads and humiliate them in
the eyes of the public. So he ordered that a rein be put into Miytham's mouth to prevent
him from speaking. After sometime, his tongue was cut off.

On the third day, some one wounded him with a spear
saying, "I am wounding you though I know that you always fasted during the day and
stood the whole night in prayers." In the evening blood came oozing out from his nose
and mouth, reddening his face and chest, and he left this world. He was martyred in the
cause of Islam, ten days before the arrival of Imam Husayn in Karbala. It means that he
died on 21st or 22nd Dhu'l hijjah, 60 AH. At night seven date-sellers secretly took away
his body and buried him on the bank of a canal and erased the signs of the grave.href="#r76" name="n76">

Later on when there was no danger, the grave was shown
to the public. Now there is a big shrine upon it where the devotees go for pilgrimage.

One of the graces of Allah upon Miytham was that
knowledge and piety remained in his progeny, generation after generation. His sons,
grandsons and great-grandsons were among the respected companions of the Shi'ite Imams.
Miytham had six sons: Muhammad, Shu'ayb, Salih, 'Ali, 'Imran and Hamzah. All of them were
among the companions of the fourth, fifth and sixth Imams.

Among his grandsons, Isma'il, Ya'qub and Ibrahim (all
sons of Shu'ayb) were companions of the fifth, sixth and seventh Imams. 'Ali bin Isma'il
bin Shu'ayb bin Miytham is counted among the most prominent theologians of Shi'ism. His
discussions with his adversaries show his knowledge, intelligence and presence of mind.
Moreover, we find many other names in the progeny of Miytham mentioned in the books of
traditions and biographies (rijal).

Bilal was at first a slave of Safwan bin Umayyah.
During his slavery, he was tortured inhumanely because of his faith. He was made to lie
down naked on the burning sand of the Arabian desert; a heavy stone was put on his chest
which made breathing difficult for him. And as if it was not enough, some heavily built
persons used to jump upon the stone, trying to crush him to death. Still the only sound
heard from Bilal was "Ahad! Ahad! (One God! One God!).

Seeing such barbarism meted out to Bilal, the Prophet
was very much grieved. Abu Bakr purchased and emancipated him. In the 2nd year AH when the
adhan (the call to the prayers) was prescribed, Bilal was given the honour to call adhan.href="#r79" name="n79"> Later on, some people
suggested that this honour should be given to someone else, because Bilal could not
pronounce the Arabic letter shin properly. The Prophet said, "The sin of
Bilal is shin in the hearing of God." Allah does not see the physical
manifestation; He appreciates the purity of heart.

Once Bilal came to the holy Prophet and recited some
lines of poetry in his own language in the praise of the Prophet. The Prophet asked Hassan
bin Thabit al-Ansari to translate it into Arabic. Hassan said:

When noble traits are described in our
country,

thou art pointed out as a model among us.

It is a well-known fact that the Prophet had an
admirable sense of humour - although even in witticism, he never spoke but truth. Once an
old lady of Medina asked him to pray to Allah to give her a place in the Paradise. The
Prophet said, "Old women would not enter the Paradise." She went out crying.
Bilal saw her and asked her why she was crying. She narrated the whole episode. Bilal came
with the lady to the Prophet, and said, "This woman is narrating such and such from
you?" The Prophet said, "Even black men would not enter the Paradise." Now
Bilal too started crying. Then 'Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet reached there and learning
of the episode, tried to intercede with the Prophet, who told him that even old men would
not enter the Paradise. When he too joined the crying group, the Prophet told them to be
cheerful because Allah would create them young and with bright faces and then they would
go into Paradise.

Bilal was devoted to the Ahlul Bayt. Imam Ja'far
al-Sadiq is recorded as having said, "May God bless Bilal! He loved us, the family of
the Prophet, and was one of the most pious servants of Allah."

It is written in Kamil Baha'i that Bilal did not
say adhan or iqamah for Abu Bakr, and did not pay allegiance to Abu Bakr as a caliph. Shaykh
Abu Ja'far al-Tusi has narrated in lkhtiyar al-Rijal a report that Bilal refused to
pay allegiance to Abu Bakr; and 'Umar caught hold of his dress made of hide and said,
"Is this the reward of Abu Bakr; he emancipated you and you are now refusing to pay
allegiance to him?". Bilal said, "If Abu Bakr had emancipated me for the
pleasure of Allah, then let him leave me alone for Allah; and if he had emancipated me for
his service, then I am ready to render him the services required. But I am not going to
pay allegiance to a person whom the Messenger of God had not appointed as his
caliph." 'Umar then dealt harshly with him and said, "You should not remain here
among us." That is why after the Prophet's death, Bilal could not remain in Medina;
and migrated to Syria.

Some of his poetry on this subject is as follows:

By Allah! I did not turn towards Abu Bakr,

If Allah had not protected me,

hyena would have stood on my limbs.

Allah has bestowed on me good

and honoured me,

Surely there is vast good with Allah.

You will not find me following an innovator,

Because I am not an innovator, as they are.

The author of Isti'ab writes, "When the
Prophet died, Bilal wanted to go to Syria. Abu Bakr told him to remain in his (personal)
service. Bilal said, 'If you have emancipated me for yourself, then make me a captive
again; but if you had emancipated me for Allah, then let me go in the way of Allah.' Abu
Bakr left him alone."

Bilal died in Damascus by plague in the year 18 AH or
20 AH, and was buried in Bab Saghir.
His grave in Damascus is visited by thousands of devoted Muslims every year.

('Adi was 'Umar's tribe.)

Fizzah raised a family of her own; but her devotion to
the Ahlul Bayt continued. She, on her own accord, accompanied Husayn to Karbala and shared
the agonies and sufferings which the family of Imam Husayn had to endure.

Her knowledge of the holy book, the Qur'an, is renowned
in the Muslim world. It is recorded that at least for the last twenty years of her life,
she never uttered a single word except the Our' an, and always talked by reciting the
verses of the Qur'an. One interesting piece of conversation is given here to illustrate
her unique erudition:

Abu'l Qasim al-Qushayri quotes a reliable person that
once he was left behind from his caravan and was travelling alone. In the desert, he saw a
woman and asked who she was. The woman recited the verse of the Qur'an: "And say
'salam', and soon shall they know." (43:89) He realised his mistake and greeted
her, and then asked, "What are you doing here?"

The woman: "And those whom God guides, there can
be none to lead (them) astray."(39:37)

The man: "Are you a genie or a human-being?"

The woman: "O children of Adam! Wear your
beautiful apparel at every time and place of prayer."(7:31)

The man: "Where are you coming from?"

The woman: "They are being called from a place
far distant. "(41:44)

The man: "Where are you going to?"

The woman: "Pilgrimage to the House (of
God) is a duty men owe to God, those who can afford the journey."(3:97)

The man: "Since how many days have you been
separated from your caravan?"

The woman: "We created the heavens and the earth
and all that is between them in six days. "(50:38)

The man: "Do you want something to eat?"

The woman: "Nor did He give them bodies that
ate no food"(21:8)

So he gave her some food. After that he told her to run
quickly. She said, "On no soul does God place a burden greater than it can bear."(2:286)

So he asked her to sit on the camel behind him. Came
the answer: "If there were, in the heavens and the earth, other gods
besides God, there would have been chaos in both" (2l:22). Hearing it, he
came down from the camel and requested her to ride it. When she sat on it, she recited, "Glory
be to Him who has subjected this to our use, for we could never have accomplished this by
ourselves. "(43:13)

After sometime, they reached the caravan. He asked her
if she had any relative of her in that caravan. She said, "O Dawud! We have
indeed made you a vicegerent on earth; Muhammad is not but a prophet; O Yahya take
hold of the book with might; O Musa, verily I am your Lord." (38:26, 3:144;
19:21; 20:11-12 respectively.)

He called these names, and saw four young men running
towards him. Meanwhile he asked the woman what was their relationship with her. She
recited, "Wealth and sons are adornments of the life of this
world."(18:46). At that time her sons reached them; the mother told her sons, "O
my father, engage him on wages, truly the best of men for your to employ is the man
who is strong and trustworthy."(28:26) The sons gave him some remuneration for his
trouble and service. But she thought it was not enough; so she said, " God gives
manifold increase to whom He pleases."(2:261) So they increased some more. (These
sons were most probably from Fizzah's second husband, Malik al-Ghatathani.)

That person asked the sons who she was. They informed
him that she was Fizzah, the servant of Fatimah, the daughter of the Prophet; and that
since twenty years she has not spoken a signal word except the Qur'an.name="n85">

vii. Qambar

Qambar's name is often mentioned in the traditions. And
he has been immortalised by the poetry lines of Imam 'Ali:

When I saw an unlawful thing,

1 kindled a fire and called Qambar.

Someone asked Qambar who was his master. Qambar
described the virtues of Imam 'Ali bin Abi Talib in such a lucid and impressive manner
that it has been recorded by the traditionists ad verbatim.name="n85"> As justice cannot be done to it in
translation, I am leaving that oration out. I have already said how lovingly Qambar was
treated by Imam 'Ali. After the Imam's death, Qambar used to relate that very seldom did
he have the occasion to serve his master because Imam 'Ali used to do his work by himself:
he used to wash his own clothes, even mended them himself whenever needed; he would draw
water from the well for his daily use; would give them good food and decent dress but
would himself eat and dress like a poor man. His oft-used phrase with them was "go
easy child".

Qambar used to say, "It was only once that he got
annoyed with me. It was at the time when I showed him the money that I have 'hoarded.' It
was from my share of the income given to me by others and gifts I had received from the
members of his family. I had collected about hundred dirhams. When I showed him the
amount, he looked angry, and what pained me most, he looked sad." Qambar inquired why
he was so sad. He replied, "Qambar, if you had no use of the money, were there no
people around you who needed the money? Some of them might have been starving, others
might have been ill and infirm. Could you not have helped them? I never thought you could
be so heartless, and could love wealth for the sake of wealth. Qambar, I am afraid you are
not trying to acquire much from Islam; try more seriously and sincerely. Take the coins
out of my house." Qambar immediately distributed the money amongst the poor and the
needy. It might be added that Qambar had long been freed by Imam 'Ali, but he remained
with him.

Hajjaj bin Yusuf al-Thaqafi, the governor of 'Abdul
Malik bin Marwan in Iraq, was a tyrant who used to boast that, "The most tasteful
thing to me in the world is shedding the blood." His name has become a proverb in
tyranny. He killed 120,000 people whose only crime was their love for and devotion to 'Ali
bin Abi Talib and the Ahlul Bayt. This number does not include those who were killed by
him in the battles. He tried very hard to eliminate the Shi'ahs of 'Ali from Iraq. Sa'id
bin Jubayr and Kumayl bin Ziyad were two of his victims.

Once Hajjaj asked, "Is there anybody left from the
followers of Abu Turab [i.e., 'Ali] so that I may please Allah by killing him?" He
was told that there was Qambar, his slave.

So Qambar, then a very old man, was captured and
brought to him. Then the following talk took place between Hajjaj and Qambar:

Hajjaj: "Are you the slave of 'Ali?"

Qambar: "Allah is my Master and 'Ali is my
benefactor."

Hajjaj: "What was your duty in the service of
'Ali."

Qambar: "I used to bring water for his ablution (wuzu)."

Hajjaj: "What was 'Ali reciting after finishing
the wuzu ?"

Qambar: "He used to recite this verse: 'And
when they forgot that which they had been admonished, He opened for them the door of
all things (of enjoyment); until when they rejoiced in what they were given, We caught
them suddenly, when, lo! they were in utter despair.'[6:44]"

Hajjaj: "I suppose he meant us to be included in
this verse?"

Qambar: "Yes."

Hajjaj: "You better leave the religion of
'Ali."

Qambar: "Before I leave his religion, tell me
which religion is better than his."

Hajjaj: "What will you do if I cut your
head?"

Qambar: "Then it will be good luck for me and bad
luck for you."

In another tradition, this last question and answer
have been recorded differently:

Hajjaj: "I surely intend to kill you. You better
choose your own method of death."

Qambar: "It is up to you. Kill me in whatever way
you like, because I kill you in the same way on the day of judgement. And, as a matter of
fact, my master had told me that you would behead me."

Hajjaj ordered him to be beheaded. Qambar was martyred
in the cause of his faith. Today his grave in Baghdad is the place of pilgrimage for
thousands of pilgrims.

viii. Sa'id

Sa'id, another slave of 'Ali bin Abi Talib, says that
once on a very hot day, 'Ali was very busy writing letters. He wanted to send Sa'id to
call some of his officers. He called him once, twice and thrice, and each time Sa'id
purposely kept silent and did not reply. The Imam then got up himself and saw Sa'id
sitting not very far. He asked him why he did not respond to his call. Sa'id replied,
"Sir, I wanted to find out when and how you would get angry." A smile appeared
on 'Ali's lips and he told Sa'id that he could not rouse him to anger with those childish
tricks. Imam 'Ali set him free, but continued to support him till his death


He was a skilled iron-smith, making fine coats of mail and swords. Thus, he accumulated a
good fortune. After his conversion to Islam, he was also brutally tortured by the
infidels. When he wanted to
migrate to Medina, the infidels pounced upon him and took every single dirham from
his possession. Thus he arrived at Medina a destitute. He was entrusted by 'Umar, the
second caliph, to lead people in prayers after his death till the next caliph was
appointed.

Khabbab bin al-Arratt

was a famous companion of
the Prophet. He was the sixth man to accept Islam. He was from the continent of Africa;
and suffered for the cause of truth.
He was among those who were known as "Shi'ahs (partisans) of 'Ali." His son,
'Abdullah together with all his family-members, was martyred by the Kharijites in 40 AH.href="#r91" name="n91">

On hearing Husayn's plight, Shawdhab and his ex-master (and now companion) 'Abis Shakiri
joined him and fell on the battlefield of Karbala.

John bin Huwai

, of Ethiopia, was probably a
convert from Christianity as his name suggests. He was a slave of Abu Dharr al-Ghifari,
the famous companion of the Prophet. After the death of Abu Dharr, he attached himself to
the Ahlul Bayt who were looking after him. He accompanied Imam Husayn to Karbala, and
although by this time an old man he tried to go to the battle-field to fight. Imam Husayn
at first refused; but John persisted and, at last, the Imam allowed him to go to the
battlefield. When he fell down, Imam Husayn went to his corpse, put his head on his lap,
and asked God to illuminate the face of John. When people of the tribe of Asad came after
three days to bury the martyrs, they were astonished to find a corpse which was shining
with heavenly light and enveloped in heavenly perfume. It was John's corpse.

Salim, Zahir bin 'Amr, Qarib bin 'Abdullah Du'ali,
Munjih bin Sahm, Sa'd bin Harth, Nasr bin Abi Naizar, Aslam bin 'Amr and Sulayman
were
among the victims of the "first attack" - an attempt made by the cavalry of
Yazid to wipe out the little group of Husayn by overwhelming them with a powerful, fast
and surprise attack. The Yazidites failed in their attempt because of the superiority of
the defence technique of the Husaynites and their fierce devotion to him. The cavalry of
Yazid retreated, leaving behind a large number of dead. But this victory was won by the
followers of Imam Husayn with a heavy price. More than fifty companions of Husayn were
lying on the battle-field; among them were the six above-mentioned brave slave martyrs.
There were six other slaves who were martyred in Karbala. Their names are: Harth bin
Nabhan
, Sa'id, Nafi', Salim, Shabib and Wadih.
Description is also found in histories of a Turkish slave of Imam Zaynul 'Abidin who
fought the army of Yazid and gave his life in the cause of Islam.

'Aqabah bin Sam'an

, also a slave, was one of the
most trusted companions of Imam Husayn. The Imam left all his important documents in his
custody. In modem terminology, way may say that he was a secretary of Imam Husayn. He was
wounded in the battle of Karbala and taken prisoner along with Imam Husayn's family. Being
one of the eye-witnesses of the massacre of Karbala, 'Aqabah bin Sam'an's chronicle is a
valuable source of history. Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, the famous Muslim historian, has recorded
'Aqabah's chronicle in his Ta'rikh al-umam wa al-muluk. That chronicle was
separated from al-Tabari's Ta'rikh and published in India with the notes by late
Mujtaba Husayn Kamunpuri of Aligarh Muslim University.

Muslims have always been proud of the sacrifices
offered by the martyrs of Karbala for the cause of Islam. The descendants of Imam Husayn
always offered their salutations to them, some times name by name, sometimes jointly. The
Shi'ah Ithna 'Asharis, following their Imams, always salute these martyrs in the following
term, almost everyday:-

Salutation to you, O saints of Allah and His beloved
ones;

Salutations to you, O chosen ones of Allah and His dear ones;

Salutations to you, O helpers of the Faith;

May my parents have the privilege of laying down their lives for you, Pure and clean
were you, and pure and clean became the earth in which you were buried;

you have indeed achieved the greatest success;

I wish to Allah that I were there with you to share the success.name="n94">

x. Slaves' Children: Imams and Caliphs

From its advent until the rise of the Umayyads, Islam
had achieved a marked degree of success in its benign war against slavery. Slaves were no
longer sub-human animals, but men and women of dignity and respect. Many a freed slave
rose to high ranks. The descendants of the Prophet and their followers continued the
Islamic attitude towards slavery. A number of Imams married slave-women who became mothers
of Imams.

The Kaysaniyyah sect believed Muhammad al-Hanafiyyah (a
son of Imam 'Ali) to be the Imam after Imam Husayn. Muhammad al-Hanafiyyah's mother Khawla
bint Ja'far bin Qays was a captive whom 'Ali married. But nobody ever suggested that being
born of a captive girl was a snag in the belief of the Kaysaniyyah.

Likewise, Zaydiyyah sect believes that the Imam, after
Imam Zaynul 'Abidin, was his son Zayd who was born of a Sindhi slave-girl, named Huriya.

Even Shahr Banu, daughter of Yazd Jurd (the last
emperor of Iran) who was married to Imam Husayn and was mother of Imam Zaynul 'Abidin, had
come to Arabia as a captive. Still her personal virtues earned her the title of
"chief of the ladies".

Hamidah Khatun, mother of Imam Musa al-Kazim was a
slave-girl from Berber. She is renowned for her knowledge and piety. She was called
Hamidah the Pure. Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq used to send the women to learn the tenets of
religion from her and used to say that "Hamidah is pure from every impurity like the
ingot of pure gold."

The mother of Imam 'Ali al-Riza also was a slave-girl
from Maghrib (North-West Africa). Her name was Taktum (or Najma) and she was known as
Tahirah, the purified one. She was renowned for her piety and knowledge.

Imam Muhammad al-Taqi was son of Sabikah, commonly
known as Khayzuran, a slave-girl from Nuba. Imam Musa al-Kazim had told Yazid bin Sabt to
convey his salams to Sabikah. She is referred to in the traditions as Tayyibah.

Imam 'Ali al-Naqi's mother, Sammanah, of Maghrib, was a
slave, but she was called "Sayyidah" (chief of the ladies). She had no equal in
piety, and love and fear of Allah. She fasted nearly the whole year. Imam 'Ali al-Naqi
told her that she was protected by Allah and was foremost amongst the mothers of siddiqin
and salihin - the truthful and virtuous people.

Imam Hasan al-'Askari was also born of a slave-girl,
Hudayth (or Salil). To show her high prestige among the Shi' ahs, it is enough to say that
after the death of Imam Hasan al-'Askari she was the central figure of Shi'ism around whom
the whole community gathered and she guided them in the best possible way. The Shi'ahs
referred to her as "Jaddah", the grandmother.

Narjis Khatun, the mother of our 12th and present Imam,
was a princess of the Byzantine empire. But she also had reached to Imam Hasan al-'Askari
as a slave.

Even as late as the Ottoman Turkish Empire, the royal
family may rightly be included in the slave-family because the mothers of the Sultan's
children were slaves. The Sultan himself was a son of a slave. Long before Sulayman's
time, the Sultan had practically ceased either to obtain a bride of royal ranks or give
title of wife to the mothers of their children. The Ottoman system deliberately took
slaves and made them ministers of state. It took boys from the sheep-run and the plough
tail and made them courtiers and the husbands of princesses, it took young men of land
whose ancestors had borne the christian names for centuries, and made them rulers in the
greatest of Muslim states.

Throughout the Muslim history, we find slaves rising
not only to administrative posts but to the kingship as well. In the words of Will Durant,
"It is astonishing how many sons of slaves rose to high place in the intellectual and
political world of Islam, how many, like Mahmud and the early Mameluks, became
kings." Subuktagin of
Ghazni and his son, Mahmud (the famous warrior king who attacked India seventeen times),
were slaves and son of slave respectively. The first Muslim dynasty of India was also
found by slaves, and is still known as the slave dynasty.

Before closing this chapter, I must emphasise one
point: All those slaves or children of slaves who reached the height of prestige
spiritually or politically - did so neither because of nor in spite of being slaves
or children of slaves; they reached there because they were Muslims who had abilities.
Their status of slavery or ex-slavery neither enhanced nor decreased the chances of their
success; it neither facilitated nor hindered their pursuit to reach their goal of life.
Muslim society, thanks to the strict injunctions of Islam and Prophet Muhammad, was
colour-blind and status-blind. The only thing that mattered was the ability which a man or
woman had.

This achievement, effected 1400 years ago, is a far cry
from the blatant failure of Christianity in this 1960's where, in Christian U.S.A. if a
Negro becomes a mayor it is considered a big news; and where in 1971 the Government
planned to promote its first black admiral, a certain Captain Samual Lee Gravely.

You see the implication of this news. Someone from the
Negroes is to be selected on political grounds because he is a Negro. Had it been
solely on his personal records, the name would not have been a matter of speculation! Such
kind of racialism and snobbery was, and still is, unthinkable in Islam. Thus, it is clear
that Islam succeeded where every other religion and system has failed so far. Islam
absorbed the slaves in Muslim society without any regard of their colour or origin.
Judging on its own records, we cannot but admire the tremendous success of Islam in this
field.


. al-Majlisi, M.B., Hayatul
Qulub, vol. II (Tehran: Kitabfurushi-e Islamia, 1371 AH), pp. 562-3; Abu Na'im Ahmad
al-Isfahani, Hilyatul Awliya, vol. I (Beirut, 1967), pp. 146-7.

. Ibn Sa'd, op.
cit., vol. IV:1, p. 58.

. al-Majlisi, Bihar
al-Anwar; vol. 22 (Tehran, n.d.), p. 355; Abu Na'im, op. cit., vol. 1, pp.
193-5; Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani, al-Isabah fi Tamyiz's-Sahabah, vol. 3 (Calcutta:
Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1853-88), p. 224.

. Ibn Sa'd, op.
cit., vol. II:1, p.47.

. al-Majlisi, Bihar,
vol. 20, pp. 189, 198; Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., vol. IV:1, p. 59, vol. VII:2, p. 65.

. al-Majlisi, Bihar;
vol. 22, p. 348.

. al-Majlisi, op.
cit., vol. 22, pp. 330, 391; Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., vol. IV:1, p. 61; Abu Na'im, op.
cit., vol. 1, p. 187.

. al-Majlisi, op.
cit., vol. 22, p. 331.

[34.] Ibid, p. 349.

. Ibid, p.
346.

. Ibid, p.
327, 349.

. Ibid, p.
347.

. Ibid, p.
319; Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., vol. IV:1, p. 61; Abu Na'im, op. cit., vol. 1, p.
187.

. al-Majlisi, op.
cit., vol. 22, p. 342.

. Ibid, p.
321.

. Ibid, p.
325; Abu Na'im, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 190.

. al-Majlisi, op.
cit., vol. 22, p. 327.

. Ibid, p.
381.

. Ibid, p.
374.

. Ibid, pp.
372, 380.

. Ibn Hajar, op.
cit., vol. 2, p. 45.

. al-Majlisi, op.
cit., vol. 22, pp. 314, 318; Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., vol.III:1, p. 28; Ibn Hajar, op.
cit., vol. 2, pp. 45-6.

. al-Majlisi, op.
cit.; Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., vol. III, p. 29; Ibn Hajar, op. cit., vol. 7,
p. 600.

. Ibn Sa'd, op.
cit., vol. 8, p. 31; Ibn Hajar, op. cit., vol. 2, p. 46, vol. 7, p. 600.

. al-Tabataba'i, al-Mizan,
3rd ed., vol. 4 (Beirut: 1974), p. 195.

. al-'Amili, op.
cit., vol. 14, p. 43; Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., vol. VIII:1, p. 71.

. al-Majlisi, op.
cit., vol. 22, p. 187; Ibn Hajar, op. cit., vol. 7, p. 600.

. Ibn Sa'd, op.
cit., vol. III:1, p. 32; Ibn Hajar, op. cit., vol. 2, p. 47.

. Ibn Sa'd, op.
cit., vol. II:2, pp. 41-2; vol. IV:1, pp.46-7.

. Ibn Sa'd, op.
cit., vol. III:1, p. 179; Ibn Athir, Usdu '1-Ghabah fi Ma'rifati's-Sahabah,
vol. 4 (Egypt, n.d.), p. 461; Ibn Kathir, al-Tar'ikh, vol. 7 (Egypt, n.d.), p. 311.

. Ibid.

. Ibid, vol,
III:1, p. 176.

. Ibid, vol.
III:1, p. 177; Abu Na'im, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 140.

. Ibn Sa'd, op.
cit., vol. III:1, p. 178; Abu Na'im, op. cit., vol.1, p. 140; Ibn Hajar, op.
cit., vol.3, p. 1219.

. Ibn Sa'd, op.
cit., vol. III:1, p. 178; Ibn Hajar, op. cit., vol. 3, p. 1220.

. Ibn Sa'd, op.
cit., vol. III:1, pp. 177, 180; Ibn Hajar, op. cit., vol. 3, p. 1220;
al-Bukhari, al-Sahih, vol. 8 (Egypt ed.) pp. 185-186; al-Tirmidhi, al-Jami'
al-Sahih, vol. 5 (Egypt ed.) p. 669; Ahmad bin Hanbal, al-Musnad, vol. 2 (Egypt
ed.) pp. 161, 164, 206, vol. 3, pp. 5, 22, 28, 91, vol. 4, pp. 197, 199, vol. 5, pp. 215,
306, 307, vol. 6, pp. 289, 300, 311, 315; Ibn 'Abdi '1-Barr, al-Isti'ab fi
Ma'rifat'l-Ashab, vol. 3, p. 1140.

. Ibn Sa'd, op.
cit., vol. III:1, p. 187; Hakim, al-Mustadrak 'ala 's-Sahihayn, vol. 3
(Hyderabad ed.) p. 392; Ibn Hisham, al-Sirah, vol.2 (Egypt ed., n.d.) p. 143; Ibn
Kathir, al-Ta'rikh, vol. 7, pp. 268, 270.

. Abu Na'im, op.
cit., vol. 1, p. 139; Ibn Hajar, op. cit., vol. 3, p. 1219; Ibn Majah, al-Sunan,
vol. 1 (Egypt ed. n.d.) p. 65; al-Haythami, Majma' al-Zawa'id, vol. 9 (Egypt ed.
n.d.) p. 295; Ibn 'Abdu'1-Barr, op. cit., vol. 3, p. 1137.

. al-Baladhuri, Ansabu'l
Ashraf, vol. 5, pp. 48, 54, 88; Ibn Abi '1-Hadid, Sharh Nahj al-Balaghah, vol.
3, p. 47; Ibn Qutaybah, al-Imamah wa 's-Siyasah, vol. 1, pp. 35-6; Ibn 'Abd Rabbih,
al-'Iqdu 'l-Farid, vol. 4 (Egypt ed.) p. 307; Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., vol.
III:1, p. 185; al-Diyarbakri; Tarikhu'l-Khamis, vol. 2, p. 271.

. Ibn Sa'd, op.
cit., vol. III:1, pp. 184-5; Abu Na'im, op. cit., vol.1, p.141.

. Qummi, 'Abbas, Muntaha'l-Amal,
vol. 1 (Tehran: 1381 AH) p. 92.

. al-Tabari, al-Ta'rikh,
vol. 1, pp. 3316-3322; vol. 3, pp. 2314-2319; Ibn Athir, al-Kamil, vol. 3, pp.
308-312; Ibn Kathir, al-Ta'rikh, vol. 7, pp. 267-272.

. al-Mufid, Kitab
al-Irshad, trans. I.K.A. Howard (London: Muhammadi Trust) pp. 243-244; and
al-Kashshi's Rijal as quoted by Qummi, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 157.

. Qummi, op. cit.,
vol. 1, p. 157.

. Kashshi, Rijal,
as quoted by Qummi, op. cit., vol. 1, pp. 143-4.

. Qummi, op. cit.,
vol. 1, p. 157; al-Mufid, op. cit., p. 244.

. Ibid.

. Ibid.

. Ibid.

. Ibid.

. Ibid, pp.
158-9.

. Ibn Sa'd, op.
cit., vol. III: 1, p. 170; Ibn Hajar, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 336.

. Ibn Sa'd, op.
cit., vol. III:1, p. 166; Abu Na'im, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 148; Ibn Hajar, op.
cit., vol. 1, p. 336.

. Ibid, p.
167.

. al-Majlisi, Hayatu'l
Qulub, pp. 129-130; Bihar, vol. 16, p. 295.

. Shustari, Nurullah,
Majalisu'1-Mu'minin (Tehran, 1268 AH) p. 54; and also see Ibn Sa'd, op. cit.,
vol. III:1, p. 169.

. Shushtari, op.
cit.; also see Abu Na'im, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 150.

. Shushtari, op.
cit., p. 54; and also see Ibn Sa'd, op. cit., vol. III:1, p.170; Ibn Hajar, op.
cit., vol.1, pp.336-337.

. Shubbar, S.
'Abdullah, Masabihul Anwar, vol. 2 (Najaf: Matba'ah al-'Ilmiyyah, 1952/1371) p.
425-6 quoting Manaqib of Ibn Shahr Ashub.

. Majlisi, Bihar,
vol. 43 (Beirut, 1983/1403) p. 86-7; Ibn Shahr Ashub, Manaqib Aal Abi Talib, vol. 4
(Bombay, 1313 AH) p. 15.

. Kashshi, Rijal
as quoted by Qummi, op. cit., vol.1, p. 153.

. Abu Na'im, op.
cit., vol. 1, p. 153; Ibn Hajar, op. cit., vol. 3, p. 514.

. Ibn Hajar, op.
cit., vol. 3, p. 514.

. Ibn Sa'd, op.
cit., vol. III:1, pp. 161-4; Ibn Hajar, op. cit., vol. 3, p. 516.

. Ibn Sa'd, op.
cit., vol. III:1, p. 116-7; Abu Na'im, op. cit., vol. 1, p. 144.

. Ibn Sa'd, op.
cit., vol. III:1, p. 21; Ibn Hajar, op. cit., vol. 4, p. 739.

. Qummi, op. cit.,
vol. 1, p. 266.

. For more
information on Imam Husayn and Karbala, see Rizvi, S.M., ed., Imam Husayn, the Saviour
of Islam, (Vancouver: 1984).

. Qummi, Mafatihu'l-Jinan
(Tehran, n.d.) p. 427.

. See relevant
chapters of Muhammad Khawind Shah's Rawdatu 's-Safa; also Ibn 'Abd Rabbih
al-Undulusi, al-'Iqdu'l-Farid, vol. 5 (Beirut: 1983) pp. 113-131.

. Durant, W., The
Story of Civilization, vol. 4, p. 209.

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