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upon us to stop those violating the sanctity of this month in public places by eating, drinking or mocking at religious tenets.

RULES OF FASTING

WAYS TO IDENTIFY THEFJRSTANDLASTDAYS OF RAMADHAN

Since Ramadhan is a lunar month, it is necessary to ascertain the new moon in order to facilitate fasting. The Sharia has accordingly prescribed one of the following ways to identify the first and last days of Ramadhan:

1- One sees the new moon himself.

2- A group of trustworthy people report seeing the new moon.

3- Two just men report seeing the new moon, and their descriptions do not disagree.

4- Thirty days have passed since the beginning of Sha ban.

5- The leading mujtahid* states that it is the first of Ramadhan.

The same procedure also applies to the last day of Ramadhan and Eid-uI-Fitr.

Note: an astronomical report on the new moon is not a binding verification of the first day of Ramadhan.

DAY OF DOUBT

1- If one is not certain whether it is the last day of Sha'ban (the preceding month) or the first day of Ramadhan, that person is not obliged to fast that day. However, if one chooses to do an optional or defaulted fast that day, and later on discovers it was the first of Ramadhan, it will be regarded as a normal Ramadhan fast.

2- If one intends to break fast on the day of doubt, but has had none of the fast-breakers, then before noon the day was proved to be of

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* A mujtahid is a person who is an expert in Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh): he is also called faqih.

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