LIST OF ISLAMIC MONTHS IN FOCUS [Electronic resources] نسخه متنی

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LIST OF ISLAMIC MONTHS IN FOCUS [Electronic resources] - نسخه متنی

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The Holy Month Of Ramadhaan

"O you who believe fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed
to those before you, that you may (learn) self-restraint" [2:183]
"Fast at its sight, and break fast at its sight".

The fasting of Ramadhan, Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha, besides being acts of
worship which regulate the relationship of Muslims with their Lord, are of the
externally visible aspects of the Islamic Ummah. Muslims start fasting
together on the same day and they celebrate Eid together on the same day in
obedience to the orders of Allah (SWT) which unite them. They do not do this
in obedience to the political decisions of the rulers, nor to the hypocritical
opinions of the government scholars, which have been designed to divide

The Messenger of Allah (SAW) said "Fast at its sight and break fast at its
sight. If it turned out to be cloudy over you, then complete Sha'ban for thirty
days". He (SAW) also said "Fast at its sight and break fast at its sight it. If it
(the moon) was clouded over, then complete the thirty". He (SAW) said
"Indeed the (count of the) month is twenty nine. So don't fast until you see it (the
moon). If it was cloudy over you estimate it."

These Prophetic ahadeeth are explicit in their indication that the legal cause
for the start of Ramadhan is the sight of the moon of Ramadhan and that the
legal reason for Eid al-Fitr is the sight of the moon of) Shawaal. The speech of
the law-giver (Ash-Shari) in these ahadeeth is addressed to all of the Muslims,
with no difference between those of ash-Sham and those of al-Hijaz or
between those of Indonesia and those of Iraq for the words of the ahadeeth
came in the general form where the plural pronouns (Sumoo and Aftiroo)
indicate all of the Muslims. The word ru'yateeh (its sight) is a generic noun (ism
jins) added to a pronoun, which means the sighting of the moon by any
person. However there are ahadeeth that restricted this sighting to Muslims. It
was narrated on the authority of Ibn Abbas that "A Bedouin came to the
Prophet (SAW) and said 'I saw the moon'. The Prophet (SAW) said 'Do you
bear witness there is no God but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger
of Allah ?' He answered 'yes'. Then the Prophet (SAW) called upon us to fast".

The sighting of the moon of Ramadhan or the moon of Shawaal by a Muslim
obliges all the Muslims to fast or break fast, with no difference between a
country or another or between a Muslim or another because any Muslim who
saw the moon is proof for any who did not see it. The witnessing by a Muslim
in any country is not more deserving than the witnessing by a Muslim in any
another country. There is no value of the divisions and borders which the
kuffar established in the Muslims' lands, which made it so that the Muslims of
Dar'a in Syria start fasting while the people of Ramtha in Jordan do not,
although there is nothing between the two cities except imaginary borders
drawn by the kuffar since the Khilafah was demolished, and the rulers
endeavour that they (the borders) remain.

The command in the Messenger's (SAW) ahadeeth regarding the fasting of
Ramadhan at the sighting of the moon is an obligation, because it is a
command of a duty proved by the saying of Allah (SWT) "The month of
Ramadhan, in which Qur'an was revealed as guidance to mankind and also
in it are clear signs of guidance and judgement, so everyone of you who is
present during the month should spend it fasting". The command of breaking
the fasting at the sight of the moon of Shawaal is also an obligation. This is
because the Messenger of Allah (SAW) forbade fasting on two days; the day
of al-Adha and the day of al-Fitr. Since this forbiddance is either regarded as
an act of Mandoub (recommendation) or an act of Fard (obligation), it
indicates that the command in his saying "and break the fast at its sight" is an

As for the difference between the regions in which the moon is seen at any
particular time ( ikhtilaf al-matali') which some people use as an excuse, it is
an issue of verifying the reality (tahqeeq al Manaat) of the situation in which the
Muslims used to live, a subject which previous scholars discussed. Where the
Muslims were unable to inform all the territories of the huge Khilafah state in
one day of the moon's sighting, it was because the means of media at that
time did not make it possible. To some of those who hold to this view we
present that which was narrated from Kurayb that Umm al-Fadl sent him to
Muawiyah in ash-Sham. He said "I came to ash-Sham and executed her
mission, and Ramadhan started while I was in ash-Sham. I saw the moon on
Friday night. Then I arrived in Al-Madinah at the end of the month. Abdullah ibn
Abbas asked me about things and about the moon. He said, 'When did you
see the moon ?' I said 'we saw it on Friday night'. He said 'Did you seen it
yourself ?' I said 'yes and the people saw it and they and Muawiyah started
fasting.' He said 'But we saw it on Saturday night, so we will continue fasting for
thirty days or we will see it (the moon of Shawaal)'I said 'Is not Muawiyah's
sighting and fasting enough for you ?' He said 'No, this is how the Messenger
of Allah (SAW) commanded us." This is not a divine evidence. It is rather
ijtihad by Ibn Abbas regarding the saying of the Prophet (SAW) "Fast at its
sight and break fasting at its sight." Ibn Abbas did not accept the sighting of
the moon by the people of Damascus because the people of Madinah did not
see it on the same day. This ijtihad disagrees with the explicit meaning of the
hadeeth narrated by a group of Ansaar. The narrator said "The moon of
Shawaal was covered by clouds for us, so we woke up the next day fasting.
Some travellers came to Madinah toward the end of the day and they gave
witness to the Prophet (SAW) that they had seen the moon the previous day.
So the Prophet (SAW) ordered them (the people of Madinah) to break the fast
and to go out for their Eid the following day". So the Messenger of Allah (SAW)
ordered them to break the fasting on a day they thought of as part of
(Ramadhan) because some people other than them saw the moon of
Shawaal in a place other than al-Madinah al-Munawara, for the travellers saw
the moon one day before they arrived in al-Madinah.

Today, however, the media means are available to all the states to convey
the news of the moon sighting to the whole world in a few seconds. So Muslims
are obliged to start fasting or to break the fasting the moment they hear the
news that the moon sighting has been determined from any place on the face
of the earth. Whether this sighting was confirmed through a direct sighting,
binoculars, glasses, or magnifying lenses. The valid sighting is by the eyes.
There is no value in the astronomical calculations if the eye sight was not
proven because there is no legal value in the astronomical calculations in
determining the fasting and the breaking of the fast. This is because the legal
reason for fasting and the breaking of the fast is the sighting of the moon by the
eye. This is due to the saying of the Prophet (SAW) "If you have seen it fast,
and if you have seen it break your fast. If it was cloudy over you estimate for it"
This saying " If it was obscured" means if you did not see it by eyesight. As for
his (SAW) saying "estimate it", it does not mean to refer to astronomical
calculations. Rather, it means what the Prophet (SAW) explained in his saying
"If it was cloudy over you, then complete the thirty".

Oh Muslims!

Disunity on the sighting of the moon is but one of many problems that face the
Muslims due to the absence of the Khilafah state, which looks after the affairs
of Muslims by the rule of Islam, and unifies them under the flag of La ilaha Il
Allah Muhammad dur rasul ullah. So Muslims have to adhere to al Hukm
Sharia' in their fasting, in their breaking of the fast and all their actions, even if
their rulers did not adhere to it. For there is no obedience to creation in
disobedience to the creator.

So if the news of the moon sighting for Ramadhan from anywhere on the face
of the earth reaches them they must start fasting and if the news of the moon
sighting of Shawaal by any Muslim from any where on the face of the earth
reaches them they must break their fasting.

The true fundamental solution of all the Muslims' problems is in your power,
which is the serious work with the sincere workers to resume the Islamic way of
Life by re-establishing the Khilafah state, and appointing a Khalifah who unifies
their states and implements the Sharia of Allah (SWT) upon them so they carry
with him the message of Islam by Jihad to all mankind, so that the word of the
kafireen becomes low and the word of Allah (SWT) becomes high. Thus they
live with honour and dignity in the dunya and attain the pleasure of Allah (SWT)
and His reward in the Akhira.

Allah (SWT) says "And say: work (righteousness), soon Allah will observe
your work and His Messenger and the believers. And soon you will be
brought back to the knower of what is hidden and what is open. Then he will
show the truth of what you did".

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