Tahdhib alAhkam and AlIstibsar [Electronic resources] نسخه متنی

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Great Shi'i

'Tahdhib al-Ahkam' and 'Al-Istibsar'

Dr. I. K. A. Howard
Al-Serat, Vol. 2 (1976), No. 2

The Author

Shaikh al-ta'ifa (the teacher of the community) Abu Ja'far
Muhammad b. al-Hasan b. 'Ali b. al-Hasan al-Tusi was born in Tus in Iran
in the year 385 of the Islamic era. His career marks the climax of a very
great period in Shi'ite Islamic scholarship and learning. It was during
this period that Shi'ite scholars were without rivals in the Islamic
world. Al-Shaikh al-Tusi's teachers included al-Shaikh al-Mufid, and the
two brothers, members of Ahl al-bait and both outstanding scholars,
al-Sharif al-Murtada and al-Sharif al-Radi.

This period of great public Shi'ite Islamic scholarship had begun with
al-Kulaini (died 328/9 A.H.), whose collection of traditions, al-Kafi,
is the first of the four major works of Shi'ite Islamic traditions.[1] It was
then continued with al-Shaikh al-Saduq lbn Babawaih (died 381 A.H.); his
great collection of traditions, Man la yahduruh al-faqih, is the
second of the major works of traditions.[2] The
remaining two major collections of traditions were compiled by al-Shaikh
al-Tusi and they are Tahdhib al-ahkam fi sharh al-munqi' a[3] and
al-Istibsar fima 'khtalaf min al-akhbar.[4]

Al-Shaikh al-Tusi grew up in Tus and began his studies there. In 408
A.H. he left Tus to study in Baghdad. There he first studied under
al-Shaikh al-Mufid, who died in 413 A.H. Leadership of the Shi'ite
scholars then fell to al-Sharif al-Murtada. The latter remained in this
position until his death in 436 A.H. During this time al-Shaikh al-Tusi
was closely associated with al-Sharif al-Murtada. His vast scholarship and
learning made him a natural successor of al-Sharif al-Murtada as the
leading spokesman of Shi'ite Islam. So impressive was his learning that
the Abbasid caliph, al-Qadir bi-'llah, attended his lectures and sought to
honour him.

In the closing years of al-Shaikh al-Tusi's life the political
situation in Baghdad and the domains of the Abbasid caliphate was in
turmoil. The Saljuqids fiercely anti-Shi'ite, were gaining commanding
power in the centre of the Islamic Empire at the expense of the Buyids who
had always seemed tolerant to Shi'ite views. In 447 Tughril-bek the
leaders of the Saljuqids entered Baghdad. At this time many of the
'ulama' in Baghdad, both Sunni and Shi'ite were killed. The house
of al-Shaikh al-Tusi was burnt down, as were his books and the works he
had written in Baghdad, together with important libraries of Shi'ite
hooks. Fanaticism against the Shi'a was great.

Al-Shaikh al-Tusi, seeing the danger of remaining in Baghdad, left and
went to al-Najaf. Al-Najaf, the city where 'Ali b. Abi Talib had been
martyred, was already a very important city in the hearts of Shi'ite
Muslims. However, it was al-Shaikh al-Tusi's arrival which was to give
that city the impetus to become the leading centre of Shi'ite scholarship.
This is a role, which it has maintained down to the present day.

Al-Shaikh al-Tusi died in al-Najaf in 460 A.H. His body was buried in a
house there, which was made into a mosque as he had enjoined in his will.
Even today his grave is a place of visitation in al-Najaf. Al-Tusi was
succeeded by his son al-Hasan, who was known as al-Mufid al-Thani, and was
himself an outstanding scholar.[5]

The learning of al-Shaikh al-Tusi extended over the whole of Islamic
studies. He was a learned traditionist, whose two compilations will be
discussed below; but he was not only a traditionist, he was also an
authoritative jurist, who could interpret traditions to meet the needs of
jurisprudence, and many of his works on jurisprudence and the principles
of jurisprudence still survive, in particular al-Mabsut and
al-Nihaya. In addition, he was the leading Shi'ite theologian of
his time. As well as writing works of a general theological nature, he
also wrote specific works on individual topics. On the Imamate, he wrote
Talkhis al-Shafi, which was based on al-Sharif al-Murtada's
al-Shafi fi 'l-imama. He wrote a work on al-Ghaiba, the
occultation of the 12th Imam. As a traditionist, he naturally had an
interest in the men who related traditions, in his Kitab al-rijal,
he tries to list most of the important Shi'ites. His Fihrist is
an important work of Shi'ite bibliography. In it he lists many of the
works of early Shi'ite writers and sometimes gives an account of their
writers and the contents of the works. This work may to some extent
reflect al-Tusi's own library before it was so tragically destroyed.

Tahdhib al-ahkam fi sharh al-muqni 'a

The title of this work could be translated as "The Refinement of the
Laws (as Discussed) in Terms of the Explanation of the Sufficiency".
"The Sufficiency" or al-Muqni'a was a work on traditions by
al-Shaikh al-Mufid, the teacher of al-Tusi, who has been mentioned
earlier. Thus the original intention of al-Tusi had been to write a
commentary on al-Muqni'a of al-Mufid. However, he makes it clear in
his introduction that his work would only concern the furu' of
Islamic law, i.e. the practical regulations for carrying out the
sharia, the holy law of Islam. He said: "I went first to the
chapter which was connected with ritual purity (tahara), leaving
aside the (chapters) which preceded it, which were about the Unity
of God (tawhid), Justice ('adl), Prophethood (nubuwwa)
and the Imamate (imama), because the explanation of these would
be too lengthy, and also because it was not the intention of this book to
elucidate the principles of religion (al-usul).[6]

In his introduction, al-Tusi makes it clear that the principal motive
for writing this work and limiting it to the furu', was the great
differences which were arising in Shi'ite traditions. He mentions that
these differences were being used against the Shi'a by their opponents as
an argument against the truth of Shi'ite beliefs. The situation had become
so critical that al-Tusi reports al-Mufid's account of one Shi'ite
adherent who had left the community because of the contradictory
traditions. Al-Tusi set himself the task of analysing the traditions
concerned with furu', explaining which traditions were deficient
and reconciling apparent contradictions in sound traditions. He used
al-Mufid's al-Maqni'a as the basis for this task.[7]
However, he did not only deal with the traditions used in al-Muqni'a;
he analysed many more traditions which he included at the end of
various sections, appendices of traditions not mentioned by al-Mufid,
which he also discusses.

The method used is to quote the traditions and then al-Mufid's comments
on them. This is often followed by al-Tusi's explanation of al-Mufid's
comments. Sometimes, it is not always clear whether the explanation
belongs to al-Mufid or al-Tusi. However, he quite often makes it clear
that it is al-Mufid when he says: "Al Shaikh said..." But sometimes a
discussion is introduced by the ambiguous terms: "He said..." This could
refer to either al-Mufid or al-Tusi. In the appendices al-Tusi makes it
quite clear that he is making the comments, for he says: "Muhammad b.
al-Hasan said..."

The discussions on the traditions are sometimes of considerable length.
An example is the discussion of the method of performing ritual ablutions,
there quotations are made from Arabic verse to support the Shi'ite version
of rubbing the feet instead of washing them.[8]

The work is divided into chapters (kutub) and the chapters into
sections (abwab) with appendices following when appropriate. The
work is a very comprehensive study of Shi'ite traditions and consists of
the following chapters:
Ritual Purity
Formal Prayer
Alms Tax
Sacred War
al-Qadaya wa-'l-ahkam
Judgements and Legal Requirements
al-'itq wa-'l-tadbir wa-'l-mukatba
Manumission of Slaves (according to the various
al-Ayman wa-'l nudhur wa-'1-kaffarat
Oaths, Vows and Atonements
al-Said wa-'l-dhaba'ih
Hunting and Ritual Slaughter
al-Wuquf wa-'l-sadaqat
Endowments and Alms
al- Wasaya
al-Fara'id wa-'l-mawarith
Formal Rules of Inheritance
Punishment prescribed by Revelation
Indemnities for Bodily
Injury It is said that al-Tusi began this
work during the life of al-Mufid and had reached the end of the chapter on
"Ritual Purity" by the time of his death (413 A.H.). However the work was
not finally finished until al-Tusi moved to al-Najaf (448 A.H.).[9]

One of the remarkable features of this work is that despite the great
number of traditions, which had become known to al-Tusi since the time of
al-Kulaini and lbn Babawaih, al-Tusi's interpretation of what are the
correct traditions, preserves Shi'ite law in a very similar position to
that of al-Kulaini and lbn Babawaih. The reason for the great spread of
diverse traditions during the period from al-Kulaini's death to al-Tusi's
(328/9 A.H.) death (460 A.H.) may have been the fact that this was a
period in which the Buyids held sway in Baghdad; they were very
sympathetic towards the Shi'a. Thus, this was a period in which the Shi'a
were not persecuted and could admit their beliefs without too much fear.
In such circumstances, there was much more opportunity for outsiders to
bring extraneous traditions into the Shi'ite corpus. However al-Tusi had
available to him many of the early works of Usul which had been
available to the earlier Shi'ite compilers of collections of traditions.
Al-Tusi says about this work: "When our companions looked at the akhbar
(traditions) connected with what is permitted and forbidden
(al-halal wa-'l-haram) which we had collected in it, they saw that
they included most of what the sections of laws connected with
jurisprudence. In all its sections and its chapters, only very little of
the traditions of our companions, their books, usul and
compilations has escaped.[10]

Al-Istibsar fima 'khtalaf al-akhbar

Al- Istibsar is the fourth and last of the major works of
Shi'ite Islamic traditions. It covers the same field as Tahdhib
al-ahkam but is considerably smaller. Al-Tusi mentions that his
colleagues, after seeing the size of Tahdhib al-ahkam considered:
"...... It would be useful that there should be a reference (madhkur)
book which a beginner could use in his study of jurisprudence, or one
who has finished, to remind himself, or the intermediate (student) to
study more deeply. Thus (so that) all of them could obtain what they need
and reach their soul's desire, what is connected with different traditions
would be set in an abridged way . . . Therefore they asked me to summarise
it (Tahdhib al-ahkam) and devote care to its compilation and
abridgement, and to begin each section with an introduction about what I
relied on for the legal decisions and traditions in it; then I should
follow with those traditions which disagree and explain the reconciliation
between the two without leaving out anything which was influential. I
would follow my practice in my big book mentioned earlier (i.e. Tahdhib
al-ahkam) and at the beginning of the book, I would explain briefly
how traditions are weighed against each other, and how the practice of
something was possible through (the authority) of (some of) them to the
exclusion of the rest ..."[11]
Al-Tusi, then, follows this statement with a brief but comprehensive and
clear outline of the principles of jurisprudence.[12]

As can be seen from al-Tusi's own introduction, al-Istibsar is
essentially a summary of Tahdhib al-ahkam. Its methods are similar
but briefer; there are not so many traditions used in the work and the
explanations are more concise. In many ways it is closer to Man la
yahduruh al-faqih, although unlike the latter it gives full isnads
for the traditions quoted. However it is possible to say that
al-Kafi and Tahdhib al-ahkam represent comprehensive
collections of traditions, while Man la yahduruh al-faqih and
al-Istibsar are books intended to be used as ready reference works
for students and scholars.

The collections and commentaries of Shi'ite traditions did not end with
al-Tusi but his works mark the high point in this process. It had begun
with al-Kulaini, whose al-Kafi, while not the first collection, was
certainly the first major collection based on the early works of usul.
The process had been continued by lbn Babawaih; in his introduction to
Man la yahduruh al-faqih he makes it clear that he had also used
these usul. Al-Tusi, the author of the other two major works of
Shi'ite traditions also admits his dependence on these early works. As has
already been pointed out, these three authors and their four major works
of tradition present a generally consistent picture of Shi'ite Islamic
legal thinking. It is a remarkable picture of tradition and shows that,
whatever the vagaries of individuals may have been, leading Shi'ite
scholars had a clear and consistent view of their traditions.

On al-Kulaini and al-Kafi, cf. Al-Serat, Vol. II, No.1
(March, 1976), 28-32
On Ibn Babawaih and Man la yahduruh al-faqih,
cf. Al-Serat, Vol.II, No.2 (June, 1976), 19-22
New edition in ten volumes edited by al-Sayyid Hasan
al-Musawi al-Khurasan, published in Teheran (3rd edition) 1390
New edition in four volumes edited by al-Sayyid Hasan
al-Musawi al-Khurasan, published in Teheran (3rd edition) 1390
The details of the life of al-Shaikh al-Tusi have
been taken from al-Sayyid Bahr al-Ulum's introduction to al-Tusi's
Talkhis al-Shafi (3rd edition) (Qumm 1974) 1-45
Tahdhib al-ahkam, op.cit., I, 3
Idem 2-3
Idem, 66-74
al-Musawi, "Introduction" Tahdhib al-ahkam, I,
46 citing al-Sayyid Bahr al-Ulum.
al-Istibsar, op.cit. I, 2
Idem 2-3
Idem 3-5

Published by the Muhammadi Trust of
Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Reproduced with permission by the Ahlul Bayt Digital
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