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Carla Schroder

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Recipe 3.2. Getting Software for a Debian System



3.2.1 Problem


You need some software for your
Debian system. There are gigabytes of software out there, waiting for
youbut where do you find software that's
packaged for Debian? How do you decide which software archives to
use?


3.2.2 Solution


Debian
packages come from official Debian package repositories, unofficial
repositories, and CD-ROMs. You must specify these sources in
/etc/apt/sources.list, then use
Debian's packaging tools to install software from
these sources.

Visit these sites to find the
addresses for download sites:

Official Debian mirror


http://www.debian.org/mirror/


Unofficial APT repositories


http://www.apt-get.org



Visit this site for a worldwide list of CD vendors:

Vendors of Debian CDs


http://www.debian.org/CD/vendors/



Use the
Debian package search page to find
individual packages:

Debian packages search page and information


http://www.debian.org/distrib/packages/



The next step is to edit
/etc/apt/sources.list
with your selected sources. See the Discussion for some sample
configurations.


3.2.3 Discussion


Here are three sources.list examples. Run
apt-get update every time you change
sources.list, and run it periodically to keep
your package lists up-to-date.

sources.list for
Woody:

# See sources.list(5) for more information
# Remember that you can only use http, ftp, or file URIs
# CD-ROMs are managed through the apt-cdrom tool.
deb http://http.us.debian.org/debian stable main contrib non-free
deb http://non-us.debian.org/debian-non-US stable/non-US main contrib non-free
deb http://security.debian.org stable/updates main contrib non-free
# Uncomment if you want the apt-get source function to work
#deb-src http://http.us.debian.org/debian stable main contrib non-free
#deb-src http://non-us.debian.org/debian-non-US stable/non-US main contrib non-free

sources.list for
Sarge:

deb http://http.us.debian.org/debian testing main contrib non-free
deb http://non-us.debian.org/debian-non-US testing/non-US main contrib non-free
deb http://security.debian.org testing/updates main contrib non-free
# Uncomment if you want the apt-get source function to work
#deb-src http://http.us.debian.org/debian testing main contrib non-free
#deb-src http://non-us.debian.org/debian-non-US testing/non-US main contrib non-free

sources.list for
Sid:

deb ftp://ftp.us.debian.org/debian unstable main contrib non-free
deb ftp://non-us.debian.org/debian-non-US unstable/non-US main contrib non-free
# Sources
deb-src ftp://ftp.us.debian.org/debian unstable main contrib non-free
deb-src ftp://non-us.debian.org/debian-non-US unstable/non-US main contrib non-free

apt-get always takes the newest package
version, if it finds multiple sources. List your sources in order of
preference, because apt-get
starts at the top and works its way down.

Editing your sources.list a lot is perfectly
acceptable, and it's a simple way to control
installations. Put in all the lines you think you might ever want to
use, and comment out the lines that are unneeded for specific
installations.

A nice thing to do is to select official Debian mirrors for your
sources.list, to take the load off the servers
at Debian.org. A complete list of the official
mirrors
is at http://www.debian.org/mirror/.


Security updates are available only
from http://www.debian.org/security/. Security
updates are not mirrored. See the appropiate
sources.list above to get the correct lines for
Stable and Testing. And remember while that Stable receives swift,
timely security updates, they are issued much more slowly for Testing
and Unstable.


3.2.4 See Also




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