Visual QuickStart Guide [Electronic resources] : Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger نسخه متنی

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Visual QuickStart Guide [Electronic resources] : Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger - نسخه متنی

Maria Langer

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The Keyboard

The keyboard offers another way to communicate with your computer. In addition to typing text and numbers, you can use it to choose menu commands.

There are three types of keys on a Mac OS keyboard:

    Character keys , such as letters, numbers, and symbols, are for typing information. Some character keys have special functions, as listed in

    Table 1 .

    Table 1. Special Character Keys



    Enters information or "clicks" a default button.

    Begins a new paragraph or line or "clicks" a default button.

    Advances to the next tab stop or the next item in a sequence.

    Deletes a selection or the character to the left of the insertion point.

    Deletes a selection or the character to the right of the insertion point.

    "Clicks" a Cancel button or ends the operation that is currently in progress.

    Modifier keys alter the meaning of a character key being pressed or the meaning of a mouse action. Modifier keys are listed in

    Table 2 .

    Table 2 . Modifier Keys



    Produces uppercase characters or symbols. Also works with the mouse to extend selections and to restrain movement in graphic applications.

    Produces special symbols.

    Accesses menu commands via keyboard shortcuts.

    Modifies the functions of other keys and displays contextual menus.

    Function keys perform specific functions in Mac OS or an application. Dedicated function keys, which always do the same thing, are listed in

    Table 3 . Function keys labeled through on the keyboard can be assigned specific functions by applications. (The number of function keys vary depending on the keyboard model.)

    Table 3 . Dedicated Function Keys



    Displays onscreen help.

    Scrolls to the beginning.

    Scrolls to the end.

    Scrolls up one page.

    Scrolls down one page.

    Moves the insertion point or changes the selection.


    is called the

    Command key (not the Apple key).

    Contextual menus are discussed on the previous page.

To use a keyboard shortcut


Hold down the modifier key(s) in the sequence. This is usually , but can be , , or .


Press the letter, number, or symbol key in the sequence.

For example, to choose the Open command, which can be found under the File menu (Figure 15 ), hold down and press .

Figures 8, 9 , and

14 ).

Some commands include more than one modifier key. You must hold all modifier keys down while pressing the letter, number, or symbol key for the keyboard shortcut.

You can find a list of all Finder keyboard shortcuts in

Appendix A .

Some applications refer to keyboard shortcuts as

keyboard equivalents or

shortcut keys .


Mac OS uses icons to graphically represent files and other items on the desktop, in the Dock, or within Finder windows:

    Applications (Chapters 7 through

    9 discuss working with applications.

    Figure 19. Application icons.

    Documents (Chapter 7 covers working with documents.

    Figure 20. Document icons, including a TextEdit document, a Preview document, and a Word document.

    Folders (Chapters 3 and

    4 discuss using folders.

    Figure 21. Folder icons.

    Volumes (Chapter 3 covers working with volumes.

    Figure 22. Three different volume icons: hard disk, iDisk, and Network.


    Trash (Chapter 3 .

    Figure 23. The three faces of the Trash icon in the Dock: empty, full, and while dragging removable media.

Chapter 3 .

To select an icon

Click the icon that you want to select. The icon darkens, and its name becomes highlighted (Figure 24 ).

Figure 24. To select an icon, click it.


    You can also select an icon in an active window by pressing the keyboard key for the first letter of the icon's name or by pressing , , , , , or until the icon is selected.

To deselect an icon

Click anywhere in the window or on the Desktop other than on the selected icon.


    If you select one icon and then click another icon, the originally selected icon is deselected and the icon you clicked becomes selected instead.

    Windows are discussed later in this chapter.

To select multiple icons by clicking


Click the first icon that you want to select.


Hold down and click another icon that you want to select (Figure 25 ).

Figure 25. Hold down while clicking other icons to add them to a multiple selection.


Repeat step 2 until all icons that you want to select have been selected.


    Icons that are part of a multiple selection must be in the same window.

To select multiple icons by dragging


Position the mouse pointer slightly above and to the left of the first icon in the group that you want to select (Figure 26 ).

Figure 26. Position the mouse pointer above and to the left of the first icon that you want to select.


Press the mouse button, and drag diagonally across the icons you want to select. A shaded box appears to indicate the selection area, and the items within it become selected (Figure 27 ).

Figure 27. Drag to draw a shaded selection box around the icons that you want to select.


When all the icons that you want to select are included in the selection area, release the mouse button (Figure 28 ).

Figure 28. Release the mouse button to complete the selection.


    To select multiple icons by dragging, the icons must be adjacent.

To select all icons in a window

Choose Edit > Select All (Figure 29 ), or press .

Figure 29. Choose Select All from the Edit menu to select all items.

All icons in the active window are selected.


    Activating windows is covered later in this chapter.

To deselect one icon in a multiple selection

Hold down while clicking the icon that you want to deselect. That icon is deselected while the others remain selected.

To move an icon


Position the mouse pointer on the icon that you want to move (Figure 30 ).

Figure 30. Point to the icon that you want to move.


Press the mouse button, and drag the icon to the new location. As you drag, a shadowy image of the icon moves with the mouse pointer (Figure 31 ).

Figure 31. Drag the icon to the new location.


Release the mouse button when the icon is in the desired position (Figure 32 ).

Figure 32. Release the mouse button to complete the move.

Chapter 3 .

You move icons to rearrange them in a window or on the desktop, or to copy or move the items they represent to another folder or disk. Copying and moving items is discussed in

Chapter 3 .

You can also move multiple icons at once. Simply select the icons first, then position the mouse pointer on one of the selected icons and follow steps 2 and 3 above. All selected icons move together.

To force an icon to snap to a window's invisible grid, hold down while dragging it. The grid, which I tell you more about in

Chapter 4 , ensures consistent spacing between icons, so your window looks neat.

To open an icon


Select the icon you want to open (Figure 33 ).

Figure 33. Select the icon.


Choose File > Open (Figure 34 ), or press .

Figure 34. Choose Open from the File menu.


Double-click the icon that you want to open.


    Only one click is necessary when opening an item in a Finder window toolbar or the Dock. The toolbar and Dock are covered in detail later in this chapter.

    What happens when you open an icon depends on the type of icon you open. For example:

      Opening a disk or folder icon displays the contents of the disk or folder in the same Finder window (Figure 35 ). Windows are discussed next.

      Figure 35. Here's the window from

      Figure 33 with the Applications folder's contents displayed.

      Opening an application icon launches the application so that you can work with it. Working with applications is covered in

      Chapter 7 and elsewhere in this book.

      Opening a document icon launches the application that created that document and displays the document so you can view or edit it. Working with documents is covered in

      Chapter 7 .

      Opening the Trash displays items that will be deleted when you empty the Trash. Using and emptying the Trash is discussed in

      Chapter 3 .

    To open a folder or disk in a new Finder window, hold down while opening it.

    The File menu's Open With submenu, which is discussed in

    Chapter 7 , enables you to open a document with a specific application.

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