Natural Therapeutics of Medicine in Islam [Electronic resources] نسخه متنی

اینجــــا یک کتابخانه دیجیتالی است

با بیش از 100000 منبع الکترونیکی رایگان به زبان فارسی ، عربی و انگلیسی

Natural Therapeutics of Medicine in Islam [Electronic resources] - نسخه متنی

Syed Ahmed Ali, Sadiq H. Hussain, Ahmed H. Sakr

نمايش فراداده ، افزودن یک نقد و بررسی
افزودن به کتابخانه شخصی
ارسال به دوستان
جستجو در متن کتاب
بیشتر
تنظیمات قلم

فونت

اندازه قلم

+ - پیش فرض

حالت نمایش

روز نیمروز شب
جستجو در لغت نامه
بیشتر
افزودن یادداشت
افزودن یادداشت جدید



Natural Therapeutics of Medicine in
Islam


Syed Ahmed Ali, M.D., Dr. Sadiq H. Hussain , Ahmed
H. Sakr, Ph.D.


1.INTRODUCTION


Medicine is both an art and a science. It
encompasses prophylaxis or prevention, diagnosis, and finally
treatment (both curative and palliative).

Preventive medicine is especially important and has
been neglected as a major factor in health care. In fact, it is well
documented but little known that most of the health gains (expressed
as life expectancy, morbidity, and mortality) attributed to modem
medicine are principally due to advancements in diet and sanitation,
rather than to the more complex technologies. Preventive medicine as
a natural measure of therapeutic stresses the involvement of the
individual in his own health care. This is accomplished by educating
the patient as to proper nutrition, hygiene and physical activities.
Equally important are the psychologic and spiritual factors as these
can greatly influence the disease.

Curative medicine is as important as the preventive
one. In the process of healing, natural approaches have been used.
The natural art of therapeutics is not a new approach in the filed
of medicine, rather it is as old as people have been the inhabitants
of this planet. Man has done his best in protecting himself from
diseases and in preventing himself from sickness.

Preventive and curative approaches have been used
by man to keep himself healthy, happy and strong. Some of these
so-called "primitive" measures have been shown to be scientifically
sound and have this been added to the "modern" therapeutic regimens.
Some approaches were considered to be natural (e.g. herbs, natural
foods, etc.) while others were oriented towards the use of drugs and
synthetic remedies.

Anyone studying or practicing medicine realizes
that be is at best providing therapy to impede the disease process
so that the body can take over and effect a cure with the mercy of
Allah. In an lslamic sense, the health care practitioner must be
viewed as an agent through which Allah acts. He must not delude
himself into a position of exaggerated self-importance.

In this paper the authors wish to approach the
subject of natural therapeutics in medicine vis-a-vis the Islamic
approach of good and sound health. The paper will also include some
aspects of the following: types of natural therapeutics, diet as an
approach to natural healing and colleges that deal with natural
therapeutics. The paper does include some recommendations related to
natural approaches in medicine for the Muslim world.

Such a paper is helpful to all those concerned
about sound health of the individuals including those, groups
dealing with the allopathic and the natural medicine. This research
is of great help to all those colleges teaching medicine and
especially those colleges teaching natural therapeutics. It is a
source of help to the physicians, patients, hospitals, grocery
stores, health food stores and the like. This paper is of great
assistance to the Third World, i.e. the emerging nations whose
technological resources are meager, and whose health delivery
approaches are more or less still oriented towards the natural
therapeutic methods.

It is the hope of the authors that an eclectic
approach be adopted by the Third World, i.e. to pick up the best of
every discipline. It is hoped that the Third World nations will
establish an INSTITUTE OF HEALTH CARE DELIVERY which will catalogue
the entire spectrum of medical approaches including the "natural"
methods. If the Third World nations establish such a health
institute based on the natural approaches, they will undoubtedly
help save themselves money, time, effort and the more expensive
technology. This will lead to better healing and finally faster and
better results.


II. ISLAMIC VIEWS ON
THERAPEUTICS


Islam is a way of life to live, a system to be
followed, a code of ethics and a constitution to be applied in the
daily life of every person. As such, Islain has many constructive
ideas to offer in the fields of health and medicine. In order to
find out what Islam teaches, one has to read the Qur'an and the
Hadith. Allah says in the Qur'an in Surah the poets (Ash-Shu'ara')
about healing from diseases:

"..... and when I sicken, then He (Allah) heals me
(26.80)."

As far as the Prophet is concerned, related to the
healing of diseases, it was reported by Jabir bin AbduUah that
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said:

"For any disease there is a cure, and when the cure
matches the disease, the person recovers by the will of Allah
....."

The prophet also said about the healing of
diseases:

It was reported by Abu Hurairah that the Prophet
(pbuh) said:

"Allah never inflicts a disease unless he makes a
cure for it. ..."

As far as the treatment of diseases it was reported
by Usamah bin Shareek saying:

"I was with the Prophet (pbuh) and Arabs came to
him asking: 'O messenger of Allah: Do we take medicine for
treatment?' He said: 'Yes, Oh you the servants of Allah, take
medicine, as Allah Almighty has not created a disease without having
created a cure for it except one disease.' They asked, 'What it is?'
He said: 'Old age."' In another saying: "Allah never inflicts a
disease without providing a cure; only those who were aware of it
knew it, whereas those who were not aware, were ignorant of it."

As far as the preventive approach in health,
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said:

"An ounce of prevention is better than a ton of
treatment."

Hence, healing medicine is an art and a science. It
is done through prevention (prophylaxis), diagnosis, treatment, and
cure. In so doing, the individual may prolong his happy life and
reduce the degree and the raurrence of illness. Islam
encompasses all these approaches so that a person may stay healthy,
happy and strong.


III. LIMITATIONS OF DRUG
THERAPY


Drug therapy has become the concern of many people
2,22 . The reasons are obvious, among which are the following:

A. Most drug therapy must be closely monitored and
carefully dosed. This dose may have to be altered frequently due to
the nature of the particular disease process or other concomitant
ones the patient may have.

B. Even so, toxic effects may occur. Often one has
to weigh the advantages of drug use against the side effects. The
choice is not always clear.

C. Therapeutic drugs are usually much more
expensive than preventative measures.

D. The choice whether or not to use drug
prescriptions depends greatly on the disease process. Acute,
life-threatening diseases usually require such intervention.
However, for chronic, non-curable diseases (such as arthritis) the
rationale for drug prescriptions is much more subjective. The
psychologic makeup of the patient is likely to play a large role in
the decision to use a drug


IV. TYPES OF NATURAL
THERAPEUTICS


Among the natural healing treatments are the
following:

A.Preventive medicine

B.Dietetic approach

C.Folk medicine

D.Hakim's medicine

E.Chiropractic

F.Naturopathy

G.Naprapathy

H.Homeopathy

In dealing with this subject, Islam's approach to
healing is an eclectic one i.e., one is to use the best of every
discipline so that the health of the individual will be
preserved.


V.DIET AND NATURAL
HEALING


As far as the diet is concerned, Islam has laid
down the foundation in the Qur'an and the Sunnah for the best
approach in keeping good health. This approach is mainly through
selection of the best, preventive methods, and to be aware of any
harmful drugs. The following is a summary of the principal ideas of
Islam relating to diet and health:

A. Allah asked everyone to eat what is lawful
(Halaal). The Qur'an states in Surah Al-Baqarah (The Cow):

"Ye people: eat of what is on earth, lawful and
wholesome" (2:168). Read also (5:91).

B. People are to ENJOY their food as it affects
their personality character. Enjoying the eating of food is a matter
of worship as any other aspect of life in Islam.

C. Muslims are to SELECT the best quality of food.
In this regard Allah says in the Qur'ari in Surah Al-Kahf (The
Cave):

"Now send ye then one of you with this money of
yours to the town: let him find out which is the best food (to be
had) ... " (18:19).

D. Muslims are to EAT the best food after selecting
the best. Allah says in the Qur'an in Surah Al-A'raf (The Heights)
"Eat of the good foods We have provided for you." (7:160).

E. The best approach in the process of prevention
is the concept of MODERATION in eating habits. The Qur'an states
emphatically this idea in Surah Al-A'raf (The Heights).

"Eat and drink, but waste not by excess, for God
loves not the prodigals.' (7:31).

F. Regarding the idea of moderation through diet,
it is mentioned in Surah Taha whereby Allah says:

Eat of the good things We have provided for your,
sustenance, but commit no excess therein." (20:8 1)

G. Another approach that Islam demands from its
followers is the idea of TOTAL ABSTINENCE of food and drinks for one
whole month from dawn to sunset. The benefits of fasting have been
tested and documented especially in biochemistry, physiology,
clinical therapeutics, clinical nutrition, etc. It is beyond doubt
that fasting helps the individual to get rid of most of the toxins
in his body. At the same time fasting increases productivity and by
its frugality curbs inflation. In this regard, it would be a good
idea to point out here what Islam says in this regard. Allah says in
the Qur'an in Surah Al-Baqarah (The Cow):

"O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as
it was prescribed for those before you, that ye may learn self-
restraint" i.e. to have Taqwa (2:183)

The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said:

"Fast (the month of Ramadan) so that to heal your
bodies from diseases."

The word Taqwa has been explained in many aspects
some of which are related to health and disease, food and dietetics,
physical fitness, etc. Finally, it has been explained to mean:
self-training, self-restraint, self- control, self-discipline,
self-education and self-evaluation.

It should also be mentioned here that the
personality, behavior, and performance of the individual is affected
by the food eaten and, therefore, one has to select the best type of
food for his good health. There is thus a linkage between physical
and mental health. A proverb related to this subject has been
narrated saying:

A sound mind is a sound body and vice versa".

It is difficult to reason well while one is
physically sick. Similarly, mental illness may adversely affect
various body functions (e.g. ulcer). This dual, complementary
approach to mental and physical health is exemplified by Islamic
views towards the nursing of infants. The advantages of breast
feeding are numerous since the mother transfers many nutrients,
hormones, and even antibodies through sucking , The particular amino
acid composition of human milk may accelerate and even increase
cognitive development in the infant". In addition, one must not
forget how this close physical contact strengthens the emotional
relationship between the mother and child",". In this regard, Allah
says in the Qur'an about breast feeding.

The mothers shall give suck to their offspring for
two whole years if the father desires to complete the term. But he
shall bear the cost of their food and clothing on equitable terms.
No soul shall have a burden laid on it greater than it can bear. No
mother shall be treated unfairly on account of her child, nor father
on account of his child. An heir shall be chargeable in the same
way. If they both decide on weaning, by mutual consent, and after
due consultation, there is no blame on them. If ye decide on a
foster mother for your offspring, there is no blame on you, provided
ye pay (the mother) what ye offered, on equitable terms. But fear
God and know that God sees well what ye do." (2:233).


VI.COLLEGES FOR NATURAL
THERAPEUTICS


A. Definations

1. Allopathy "Substitutive therapy" auxotherapy; a
therapeutic system in which disease is treated by producing a morbid
reaction of another kind or in another part - a method of
substitution."

2. Naturopathy " A system of therapeutics in which
neither surgical nor medical agents are used, dependence being
placed only on natural forces."

3. Naprapathy a. "A system of therapeutic
manipulation based on the theory that morbid symptoms are dependent
upon strained or contracted ligaments in the spine, thorax, or
pelvis."

b. From Naprapathic Philosophy Notes, Theory and
Principles" A system of specific manipulative therapeutics based on
the theory of inter- ference to nerves, blood vessels and lymph
channels, by pathologic soft tissue such as connective tissue or
muscles with consequent secondary pathology or dysfunction resulting
there from."

4. Chiropractic "Aphilosophic system of mechanical
therapeutics that attribute disease to vertebral subluxations; it
treats disease with manipulation of the vertebra in order to relieve
pressure on the nerves at the intervertebral formation so that nerve
force may flow freely from the brain to the rest of the body."

5. Homeopathy "A system of therapy developed by
Samuel Hahnemann on the theory that large doses of certain drugs
given to healthy persons will produce certain conditions which, when
occurring spontaneously as symptoms of a disease, are relieved by
the same drug in small doses."

6. Osteopathy "A school of medicine based upon the
idea that the normal body when in "correct adjustment" is a vital
machine capable of making its own remedies against infections and
other toxic conditions. Practitioners use the diagnostic and
therapeutic measures of ordinary medicine in addition to
manipulative measures."

7. Folk Medicine "Treatment of ailments in the home
by remedies and simple measures based upon experience and knowledge
handed on from generation to generation ."

8. Acupuncture "An ancient medical system of
therapy using puncture by fine needles. Most recently, this has been
used for anesthesia."

9. Preventive Medicine "The branch of medical
science that treats by the prevention of disease."

10. Curative Medicine A special type of medicine
which is designed to the restoration of health - it means; "to heal,
to make well, and is a special method or course of treatment."

11. Podiatry Medical treatment, the specialty that
includes the diagnosis and/or medical, surgical, mechanical,
physical, and adjunctive treatment of the disease, injuries and
defects of the human foot.

12. Hakim Hakim is an Arabic word. Literally, it
means: a wise and a knowledgeable person. In practice it is meant a
physician without a formal education or a degree. His knowledge is
through personal tutoring as well as through inheritance. The
"medicine" that a Hakim practices is composed of a combination of
herbal medicine, homoeopathy, naturopathy, chiropractic and others.
This type of "medicine" is still practiced in most of the
"Developing Nations".

B. Types of Colleges There are many colleges and
institutes in North America dealing with natural healing. Among
which are the following:

1. Naturopathic Medicine College

2. Chiropractic Colleges (eighteen colleges in
North America)

3. Naprapathy College

4. Homeopathy College

C. General Information The General Infonnation
including the course of study for these colleges of natural
therapeutics are found at the end of this article in the
Appendices.


VII. RECOMMENDATIONS OF
NATURAL FOODS


A. Natural Foods There are four different types of
vitamins sold as "natural". These are:

1. An extract of food concentrated so that the
vitamin is in higher quantity than the original food - examples:
Heart muscle as a source of B vitamins, liver and yeast as sources
of B vitamins, rose hips and edible organ meats as sources of
vitamin C.

2. Highly concentrated crystals or purified
vitamins altered somewhat, but extracted from foods - examples;
Vitamin E acetate from vegetable oils, from B-12 as cobalamin
concentrate.

3. Synthetic vitamins for which the starting
materials are natural material - examples; Ascorbic acid from corn
sugar, Vitamin A from citral, derived from lemon grass.

4. If a natural base such as yeast is included, the
addition of synthetic vitamins may not prevent the product from
being called "natural". Many food supplements include ground up
deposits of rock from the desert as sources of minerals and these
are called "natural" minerals because they come from natural rock
deposits.

B. Reading Labels When reading labels, one has to
be careful for the following:

I. Look for Dietary Balance

a. Are the vitamins present in proportion to their
individual recommended daily intakes?

b. Do B-complex formulas include all the B-complex
vitamins, and are they adjusted to recommended amounts?

c. Are ingredients listed in amounts of active
components?

d. Are insignificant amounts of vitamins included
for advertising purposes?

e. How much "window dressing" is used?

f. Are ingredients adjusted to "cost" rather than
requirements?

2. Know your preferences for sources

3. Look for expiration dates

4. How well are they assimilated?

5.Know what you mean by "natural" "organic."

a. All vitamins are organic molecules and fall into
this chemical classification.


VIII. RECOMMENDATIONS TO
THE MUSLIM WORLD


It is recommended that the Muslim World look into
the concept, philosophy and benefits of the natural and practical
implications. It is also recommended that the ministries of public
health in cooperation with the ministries of higher education should
establish colleges of natural healing arts. Such colleges should
include all types of natural healing including the old Arab Hakim,
folk medicine, homeopathy, naturopathy, chiropractic, naprapathy and
the like. It is recommended that they take into consideration an
eclectic approach as well as the needs of the Muslims everywhere
urban and rural areas. Since most of the people in the Muslim World
are inclined to a natural approach of healing, such a project could
be very successful, very beneficial, less expensive and much safer
to the lives of the individuals.


IX. OATH OF A MUSLIM
PHYSICIAN


For the first time in the history of America, a
professional group such as the lslamic Medical Association of the
USA and Canada (IMA) adopted a professional oath in 1977. This oath
is known as "The Oath of a Muslim Physician." This oath has been
adopted in English and Arabic languages and is used yearly by the
members of the INM in their annual conventions. The following is the
oath in the English language.

"Praise be to Allah (God), the Teacher, the Unique,
Majesty of the heavens, the exalted, the glorious, Glory be to Him,
the Eternal Being who created the Universe and all the creatures
within, and the only Being who containeth the infinity and the
eternity. We serve no other God besides thee and regard idolatry as
an abominable injustice.

Give us the strength to be truthful, honest,
modest, merciful and objective.

Give us the fortitude to admit our mistakes, to
amend our ways and to forgive the wrongs of others.

Give us the wisdom to comfort and counsel all
towards peace and harmony.

Give us the understanding that ours is a profession
sacred that deals with your most precious gifts of life and
intellect.

Therefore, make us worthy of this favored station
with honor, dignity and piety so that we may devote our lives in
serving mankind, poor or rich, wise or illiterate, Muslim or
non-Muslim, black or white, with patience and tolerance with virtue
and reverence, with knowledge and vigilance, with thy love in our
hearts and compassion for thy servants, thy most precious
creation.

Hereby we take this oath in thy name, the Creator
of all the Heavens and the earth and follow thy counsel as thou have
revealed to Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).

"Whoever killeth a human being, not in lieu of
another human being nor because of mischief on earth, as if he hath
killed all mankind. And if he saveth a human life, he hath saved the
life of all mankind". (Qur'an 5:32)


X. SUMMARY


The subject of "Natural Therapeutics" has become
important in our daily life. This article has dealt with this
subject vis-a-vis the Islamic approach of good and sound health. The
paper included types of therapeutics, limitations of drug therapy,
colleges dealing with natural therapeutics, recommendations on
natural foods, recommendations of the Muslim World and an "Oath of a
Muslim Physician",

One of the important points brought out in this
paper is the eclectic approach which should be adopted through the
establishment of an institute of health delivery.

XI.
APPENDICES


The following include colleges for natural
therapeutics. Some major information about them as well as the
courses offered by those colleges. These appendices are important in
evaluating the effectiveness of these colleges in training
practitioners to handle patients.


APPENDIX ONE:
CHIROPRACTIC MEDICINE


Chiropractic medicine gives particular attention to
the relationship of the structural and neurological aspects of the
body in health and disease. Its therapeutics utilize adjustive and
manipulative procedures, physiological therapeutics, dietary
correction and supplementation, kinesiology and rehabilitative
procedures, and other drug less procedures to aid in restoration of
anatomical relationships and physiologic capabilities.

The study of chiropractic medicine requires four
and a half years and includes study of both the basic sciences
(anatomy, embryology, chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology,
psychology, and pathology) as well as clinical medicine,
chiropractic manipulation, radiology, nutrition, and acupuncture and
direct, supervised clinical experience.


APPENDIX TWO:
NAUROPATHIC MEDICINE


Naturopathic medicine is a distinct system of
healing - a philosophy, science, art, and practice which seeks to
promote health through education and the rational use of natural
agents. As a separate profession, naturopathic medicine incorporates
all natural methods of healing, including such things as botanical
medicines, homeopathy, nutritional therapy, medical electricity,
psychology, and manipulative therapies.

The human body possesses tremendous power to heal
itself through mechanisms of homeostasis - restoring balance in
structure and function and adapting to environmental changes. The
naturopathic physician uses those therapeutic substances and
techniques which act in harmony with the body's self healing
processes and avoids treatments which are designed to counteract or
supervene them. Ideally, naturopathic methods are applied as a means
of stimulating and enhancing this "healing power of nature".

The study of naturopatby requires four years. The
first two years emphasize basic medical sciences and include courses
in biochemistry, microbiology, pathology, anatomy (gross and
microscopic), physiology, immunology, public health, first aid and
emergency medicine, and physical diagnosis. The last two years
concentrate on clinical practice and include courses in clinical
diagnosis, radiology, pharmacology, psychology, physio- therapy,
obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, nutrition, biomechanics,
manipulative therapy, acupuncture, orthopedics, urology, and
dermatology. In addition, clinical externships give direct
experience in the practice of this branch of medicine.


APPENDIX THREE:
NAPRAPATHY


Naprapathy is a system of manually applied
movements, both passive and active, designed to bring motion, with
consequent release of tension, into abnormally tensed and rigid
ligaments, muscles and articulations of the human body. These
tissues and structures are normally moveable, flexible and
resilient.

Naprapathy contents that a favorable internal
environment is essential for growth, development and maintenance of
all normal health. Naprapathy's procedures assist the body to
maintain this favorable internal environment by releasing points of
tension and by the use of rational dietary and hygienic
measures.

The study of naprapathy requires three years after
two years of under- graduate study. Course work includes anatomy,
genetics, chemistry and biochemistry, microbiology, nutrition,
physiology, pathology, kinesiology, and botanical studies, and
naprapathic physiology and practice. The third year concentrates
mainly on clinical practice.


XII.
BIBLIOGRAPHY


I. Aikman,L."Nature's Healing Arts;From Folk
Medicine to Modern Drugs. " National Geographic Society Books,
1977.

2. Benowicz, R.J. "Non-Prescription Drugs and Their
Side Effects". Grossel and Dunlap, A. Filmway Co. Publishers, N.Y.
1977.

3. Dingle, J.H. "The Ills of Man" Scientific
American. 293: 77 - 84, Sept. 1973.

4. Dunlop, D.M.D. "Drug Control and the British
Health Service. "Annals of Int. Medicine 71 (2): 237 - 244,
1969.

5. Glazier, W. "The Task of Medicine." Scientific
American, 288 (4):14 - 33, 1973

6. Goddard, J.1. "The Medical Business." Scientific
American. 293: 161- 166, Sept. 1973.

7. Goodhart, R.S. and Shils, M.E. "Modern Nutrition
in Health and Disease - Dietotherapy" Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia,
1974.

8. Green, L.S. (Editor) Malnutrition, Behavior, and
Social Behavior, p. I - 288,, Academic Press, N.Y., 1977.

9. Lew, E.A. and Seltzer, F. "Color Survival of
Generations Since 1840. Milbank Memorial Fund Quaterly, July
1964.

10. McKeonn, T. and Lowe, C.R. "An Introduction to
Social Medicine." F.A. Davis Company, p. 1-18, 1973.

11. McManus, I.C. "Life Expectancy of Italian
Renaissance Artists." Lancet 266-267, 1975.

12. Muhammad, S.D. Al-Tibb Al-Nabawy (Arabic) Dar
Al-Hikmah, Beirut, Lebanon,

13. Newton, N. "Battle Between Breast and Bottle".
Psychology Today, p. 68-89, July 1972.

14. Newton, N. "Trebly Sensous Woman." Psychology
Today, p. 68 - 73, July 1971.

15. Sakr, A.H. "Dietary Regulations and Food Habits
of Muslims" J. Amer. Diet. Assoc. 58: 23, 1971.

16. Sakr, A.H. "Fasting in Islam". J. Amer. Diet.
Assoc. 67: 17 - 21, 1975.

17. Sakr, A.H. "Overeating and Behavior" The Muslim
Scientist and in J. Islamic Med. Assoc.

18. Selye, H. "Stress: It's a General Adaption
Syndrome". Psychology Today, p. 25 - 56, Sept. 1969.

/ 1