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QUESTION 22:

Why do the Shia regard the offspring's of Ali bin Abi talib (Hassan and Hussein) to be the offsprings of the holy Prophet?


ANSWER:

When studying the books of various commentaries, history and narrations, it becomes clear that such a belief is not exclusive for only the Shia, rather it can be said that all the Muslim researchers of the different Islamic groups have agreed upon this matter.

At this point, let us mention evidences that clarify this matter by referring to the holy Quran, different narrations and the speech of well-known interpreters.

Basically, the Holy Quran considers the consanguineous children of a person as his own children. The children born of ones children (either son or daughter) are also considered as ones children.

From the Quranic point of view and the tradition, there are many evidences proving this fact, some of which are as follows:

The Holy Quran, at the end of the following verse considers Esa (p) of the children of P. Ebrahim whilst H. Esa is the son of Maryam (p) and is related to H. Ebrahim through the mother:

"And we gave him Ishaaq and Yaqub; each did we guide, and Nuh did we guide before and of his descendents, Dawood and Sulaiman and Ayyub and Yusuf and Haroon; and thus we reward those who do good (to others) and Zechariah and Yahya and Esa"

The Muslim scholars consider this verse as clear evidence that Imam Hasan (p) and Imam Hussein (p) are the offsprings of the holy Prophet (p). Yet in other instances, we look up at the following examples in the Holy Quran:


QUESTION 23:

Why do the Shias consider caliphate to be through the appointment of God?


ANSWER:

It is evident that the sacred religion of Islam is a universal and eternal religion, and as long as the honorable Prophet was alive, the leadership of the person after him is assigned only to the Prophet; after him it would be assigned to the best person of the nation.

The point noteworthy here is whether the position of leadership afthe honorable prophet is an appointed one (according to the command of the Lord of the worlds and the statement of the messenger of Allah) or is it an elected one, to answer this, there exist two views worthy to consider:

The Shia believe that the position of leadership is an appointed one and that the successor of the Prophet must be appointed by God alone; while the Ahl-sunnah believe that it should be an elected one and it is up to the nation to elect a person after the Holy prophet to manage the affairs of the states.

The Social Consideration Testify That The Caliphate Should Be Appointed.

The Shia scholars have expressed many evidences in their books of ideology stating the necessity for the position of caliphate to be an appointed one. However, the only thing that can be considered to prove our point is by analyzing the conditions dominating over, during the time of the messenger, which clearly certifies the correctness of the view of Shias.

When studying the internal and foreign policies of Islam during the time of the Holy prophet, one would quickly realize that the successor appointed by the Holy prophet had to be done by Allah through the Holy prophet, due to the fact that there was a bi-lateral danger considering the political condition (the Roman empire, the Iranian kingship and the hypocrites.) that was continuously threatening the Muslim society of defeat and destruction. Moreover, the nation's interests made it necessary for the prophet to appoint a political leader who will unite the whole nation in a unified raw against the external army and in this way, remove the ground for the enemy's penetration and domination- which were aided by the internal conflicts.


Explanation:

On the one hand, there was danger lurking from the Roman empire which was seated in part of the Northern peninsula and the Holy prophet seemed to worry of this danger to the last moments of his sacred life.

The first military collision with the roman Christian army was in the eighth year of Hijra in Palestine. This clash lead to the death of three Muslim commanders namely, 'Ja'afer Al-Tayyar', 'Zaid bin Harith' and 'Abdullah bin Rawaha' and terminated with a bitter defeat of the Muslim army.

This retreat of the Muslim army before the infidels, caused the daring of Cezar's army; and there was danger of attack at any moment to the Islamic centre. Therefore, the holy Prophet moved with a fully equipped army that was very costly, towards the borders of Syria around the ninth of Hijrat. This he did because he wanted to personally command any kind of military encounter faced. The toil and trouble the Muslims had to undergo in this journey was compensated for, and proved to be constructive for the Muslim army which was able to recover its former dignity and thereby renew its political life.

The second adversary of Islam was the king of Iran 'Chosroe' who when read the Prophet's letter of invitation, was so much perturbed that he tore the letter disrespectfully and expelled the messenger's slave and even wrote the governor of Yemen to arrest the Holy prophet if not kill him.

Although the king of Iran 'Chosroe Parviz' died at the time as the Holy prophet, however, the subject of independence of yemen-, which was the colony of Iran, was not far from their perspective and the arrogance of the Iranian politics never allowed the tolerance of the existence of such a power.

The danger lurking from the third side was the danger from the hypocrites that was continuously busy causing havoc and disruption through their hypocrisy among the Muslims. This was to such an extent that they planned to kill the Holy prophet wanted to assassinate him on his way from 'Tabuk' to Madina. These were a group that used to be happy thinking that with the demise of the prophet of Islam, the whole of the Islamic movement will be terminated and rest will be in peace!

The destructive power of the hypocrites was such that the Holy Quran mentions in the chapters of Nisa, Maidah, Anfal, Baraat, Ankabut, Ahzab, Muhammed, Fateh, Mujadilah, Hadeed, Munafiqun and Hashr.

Thus was it possible to think that the holy Prophet did not introduce a successor to control the religious, political and leadership for the newly established Islamic society considering all the dangers at lurk, not to mention the presence of these fierce enemies ambushing the Islamic state?

As for looking at it from the social point of view, we say that the Holy prophet , through the introduction of a prominent leader did so in order to prevent any kind of dispute after him, with the formation of a firm defensive line ensuring the Islamic unity and preventing it from any bitter accident; and it was not possible to prevent every group after the death of the Prophet from having the claim that "The leader should be from us", except through the introduction and appointment of a divine leader.

These social calculations guide us towards he correctness and firmness of the theory of the appointment of the position of leadership to succeed after the Holy Prophet (p).

The testimony of the statements given by the God's Messenger.

Based on this social ground among other considerations, the Holy prophet right from the early days of his mission to the last days of his life, time and again presented the matter concerning the one succeeding after him, and infact he had already appointed his successor during the beginning of his sacred mission (in the ceremony that he held for his relatives on the occasion of announcing his prophecy) and in addition to this, he also announced it during his last days in life- (when returning back from Hajjatul wida, his farewell pilgrimage to Mecca in Ghadeer Khum.), and all along his lifetime, there are three examples of the mentioned texts which have already been explained in the answer of our second question accompanied with references from the Islamic scholars and books of narrations.

Thus by considering the social conditions that we have already mentioned at the early period of Islam and by referring to the texts of God's messenger (p) regarding to the introduction and appointment of the master of the faithful as his successor, it becomes quite obvious that the position of caliphate is an appointed one and is absolutely necessary and an unavoidable matter.

Tur: (30)

Depicted from 'Furoogh Abadiyyat' written by ustad Jaafer subhani.


QUESTION 24:

Is the swearing of other than God considered to be polytheism?


ANSWER:

The interpretation of the phrases 'Monotheism' and 'Polytheism' should be looked for, through the refererence of the Quranic verses and the tradition of the Holy prophet (p), because it is the Holy Quran and the narration of the Holy prophet that is the best criteria for disguising the truth from falsehood and likewise, monotheism from polytheism.

Thus, it is worthy to evaluate any concept or behavior that occurs in us with the reference to the criteria of the logic of revelation and the lifestyle of the honorable Prophet (p).

Let us look at some of the disicive proofs in order for us to clarify the permissibility of swearing of other than God, from the viewpoint of Quran and tradition.

The holy Quran amongst its eternal verses swears by valuable phenomenon such as 'prophets life', 'humans soul', 'the pen', the manifestation of writing, the sun, the moon, the stars, day and night, sky and earth, time, the mountains and the sea, some examples are as follows":

QUESTION 25:


Does imploring for help through the friends of God ('Tawassul') apply to polytheism or innovation?


ANSWER:

"Tawassul" is the appointing of an intermediate between oneself and God in order to gain proximity to God.

Ibn Manzur in 'Lesan Al-Arab'said:

"He made 'tawassul' with so and so, meaning that he gained proximity to Allah by means of according respect to the beloved servant's lofty status, of that which was of his concern."

The Holy Quran says:

"O you who believe, be careful of (your duty towards) Allah and seek means of nearness to Him and strive hard in His way so that you may be successful."

Jawhari in 'Sahah Al-Loqah' defines 'Waseelah' as such that:

'Al-Waseelah is the means by which we seek proximity to another."

Therefore, that precious being through whom we tend to seek proximity can also sometimes be our own good deeds and sincere worship to the Lord that we can use as a strong means to bring us in close proximity to the Lord of the Worlds, and other times it could also be through a revered person who enjoys exceptional esteem and a high status before the Exalted and Glorious Lord.

Different Sections of tawassul.

'Tawassul' can be divided into three sections:

'Tawassul' through the good deeds, as Jalal Al-deen Al-Soyuti narrated the following holy verse that:

"And seek means of nearness to Him"

Qutadah said regarding the verse that:

" By obedience to God and performing a deed that is pleasing to Allah will he then gain proximity with Him."

'Tawassul' through the sincere supplications of the pious slaves of Allah as the Holy Quran speaks about Yusuf's brothers:

"They said: O our father! Ask forgiveness for us for the faults that we have committed for surely we are sinners. He said: I shall ask forgiveness for you from my Lord; surely he is the forgiving the Merciful."

When pondering over the aforementioned verse, it becomes clearly evident that the sons of Yaqub made 'tawassul' through their prayers and amnesty; and considered it as their means to attain salvation. Prophet yusuf at this incident, did not object to their 'tawassul' and promised them that he would pray for them and ask for the recompence of their deeds.

'Tawassul' through the highly spiritual and respected personalities, who have a special status of dignity before God, for the purpose of gaining proximity to Him.

This kind of 'tawassul' was proficient and accepted right from the early period of Islam by the companions of the prophet.

At this point, let us refer to the concept deriving benefit from various traditions that show the practice of the companions of the prophet and the leaders of the Islamic world.

Ahmad bin hanbal in his 'Masnad' narrated from uthman bin haneef that: "A blind man came to the honorable prophet of Islam and said:

"Request God to cure me."

The prophet hearing this, replied,

"If you wish, I can make my prayer right now and if you desire, I can even postpone it and make it later which is better."

The blind man insisted,

"Do pray for me."

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